What's Your Question?

What Is a Case Study?

When you’re performing research as part of your job or for a school assignment, you’ll probably come across case studies that help you to learn more about the topic at hand. But what is a case study and why are they helpful? Read on to learn all about case studies.

Deep Dive into a Topic

At face value, a case study is a deep dive into a topic. Case studies can be found in many fields, particularly across the social sciences and medicine. When you conduct a case study, you create a body of research based on an inquiry and related data from analysis of a group, individual or controlled research environment.

As a researcher, you can benefit from the analysis of case studies similar to inquiries you’re currently studying. Researchers often rely on case studies to answer questions that basic information and standard diagnostics cannot address.

Study a Pattern

One of the main objectives of a case study is to find a pattern that answers whatever the initial inquiry seeks to find. This might be a question about why college students are prone to certain eating habits or what mental health problems afflict house fire survivors. The researcher then collects data, either through observation or data research, and starts connecting the dots to find underlying behaviors or impacts of the sample group’s behavior.

Gather Evidence

During the study period, the researcher gathers evidence to back the observed patterns and future claims that’ll be derived from the data. Since case studies are usually presented in the professional environment, it’s not enough to simply have a theory and observational notes to back up a claim. Instead, the researcher must provide evidence to support the body of study and the resulting conclusions.

Present Findings

As the study progresses, the researcher develops a solid case to present to peers or a governing body. Case study presentation is important because it legitimizes the body of research and opens the findings to a broader analysis that may end up drawing a conclusion that’s more true to the data than what one or two researchers might establish. The presentation might be formal or casual, depending on the case study itself.

Draw Conclusions

Once the body of research is established, it’s time to draw conclusions from the case study. As with all social sciences studies, conclusions from one researcher shouldn’t necessarily be taken as gospel, but they’re helpful for advancing the body of knowledge in a given field. For that purpose, they’re an invaluable way of gathering new material and presenting ideas that others in the field can learn from and expand upon.


globalisation tnc case study

We've updated our privacy policy. Click here to review the details. Tap here to review the details.

Activate your 30 day free trial to unlock unlimited reading.

Nike - TNC case study


You are reading a preview.

Activate your 30 day free trial to continue reading.

Nike & Starbucks Globalization cases / Besten Mohamed El amine

Check these out next

globalisation tnc case study

Download to read offline

A case study about the transnational corporation, NIKE. Ideal for anyone studying A Level Geography


globalisation tnc case study

More Related Content

Slideshows for you (20).

globalisation tnc case study

Similar to Nike - TNC case study (20)

globalisation tnc case study

More from 6thformmatt (13)

globalisation tnc case study

Recently uploaded (20)

globalisation tnc case study

Share Clipboard

Public clipboards featuring this slide, select another clipboard.

Looks like you’ve clipped this slide to already.

You just clipped your first slide!

Create a clipboard

Get slideshare without ads, special offer to slideshare readers, just for you: free 60-day trial to the world’s largest digital library..

The SlideShare family just got bigger. Enjoy access to millions of ebooks, audiobooks, magazines, and more from Scribd.

globalisation tnc case study

You have now unlocked unlimited access to 20M+ documents!

Unlimited Reading

Learn faster and smarter from top experts

Unlimited Downloading

Download to take your learnings offline and on the go

Instant access to millions of ebooks, audiobooks, magazines, podcasts and more.

Read and listen offline with any device.

Free access to premium services like Tuneln, Mubi and more.

Help us keep SlideShare free

It appears that you have an ad-blocker running. By whitelisting SlideShare on your ad-blocker, you are supporting our community of content creators.

We've updated our privacy policy.

We’ve updated our privacy policy so that we are compliant with changing global privacy regulations and to provide you with insight into the limited ways in which we use your data.

You can read the details below. By accepting, you agree to the updated privacy policy.

Edexcel IGCSE Geography

Transnational corporations (tnc’s).

The working of the global economy involves a number of major players, that is organisations that have great power and influence. They include the great business empire known as transnational corporations (TNCs) and global organisations such as the united Nations (UN), the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund (IMF)  and the World Trade Organisation  (WTO). Other powerful players are the USA, the European Union, Japan and OPEC.


The table above gives the names of some of the world’s leading TNCs. It is interesting to note that over half of them are involved in the oil industry. Perhaps this reflects the fact that oil and gas are currently the leading sources of energy. They are vital to the workings of the global economy – as raw material sources, as a fuel for transport, and as generators of electricity for industry and the home.

The production chains of these and other TNCs connect across the globe, kitting together the countries of the world into a network of interdependence. The overriding motive for setting up these chains is to maximise sales and profits. Aside from agriculture, industry and domestic purposes there are also other strong motives for this:

Case Study: Tesco – A Transnational Retailer

The supermarket chain Tesco is one of the few leading TNCs with its head offices in the UK. Currently it is ranked 50th in the global league table. the company started life as a single grocery stall in the East End of London. It did not set up its first self-service supermarket until 1956. It was during the 1970s, 1980s and 1990s that the company really took off to become the largest food retailer in the UK shown by the image below.

Office Lens 20151214-140025

The key to a company’s success has been:

From a single supermarket in 1956, Tesco now has over 4500 stores and employs around 750000 people. Tesco has become a major TNC.

Case Study: Rio Tinto, Namibia

Rio Tinto is a transnational Mining and resources group, founded in 1873. At first, it concentrated its efforts on the mining of copper. As the company has prospered so it has turned it attentions to other minerals. Its networks of mines is now global in extent.

Namibia is one of the world’s major producers of uranium. Rio Tinto’s Rossing mine is one of the world’s five largest primary uranium mines shown by the image below. It is situated close to the seaside town of Swakopmund.

Office Lens 20151214-160304.jpg

At present there seems to be a uranium rush. It is based on the likelihood that nuclear power will play a leading role in filling the global energy gap. Additionally new mines are due to be opened. What has Namibia gained from small number of foreign technicians. These jobs mean tax income for the Namibia government. There are also the royalties paid to the government for the extraction of the uranium. The Uranium Oxide is exported in its raw form and enriched in countries with uranium converts such as France, the USA, Canada and China. So there is little or no `secondary` employment other than in transporting the ore to the coast and shipping it overseas. Rio Tinto provides a limited range of services for its workers and their families.

There are however costs to be considered. Health is one of these. Exposure to even relatively low levels of radiations over a long period can be extremely harmful tot he health of workers and communities living around uranium mines. Workers are exposed to dust and radon gas daily, and as a result  develop diseases such as TB and lung cancer. Although mining companies usually deny any reasonability and refuse to compensate workers, there is increasing evidence of a link between uranium mining and workers’ health problems.

Other aspects of the downside include the fact that uranium uses enormous amounts of water . Namibia is a water-deficient country. Mines produce huge amounts of waste and tailings. Once mining ceases huge holes remain. There are real environmental costs. These bring mining into direct conflict with tourism ventures that rely on Namibia’s scenic beauty and wildlife as main attractions.

The Good And The Bad

The growth of globalisation has given rise to a major debate about its real benefits. Its supporters point out that it is giving the poorest countries have something to offer to the global economy. Being involved in the global economy create jobs, the opportunity for people to earn a steady wage and chance to improve their quality of life.

Office Lens 20151214-165646.jpg

The problem is that TNCs and business are out to maximise their profits – they are inherently exploitive. They often ignore the environmental and social impacts of their investments. Few TNCs answer to the governments of the countries in which they invest. They are so powerful, they can do almost what ever they like. The profits that they make in any one country are most often `exported` to open up new businesses elsewhere. Any investment can disappear as quickly as it came, if global or local economic conditions change.

The world’s poorest countries have yet to see much benefit from globalisation. If anything, it has increased the so-called development gap between the rich and poor nations of the world. International trade only really benefits those who can afford to make, export and buy expensive imported goods, so many of the poorest people are penalised or excluded.

' src=

Globalisation - Apple Inc Case study: TNCs

Profile Picture

Terms in this set (42)

Students also viewed, apple tnc case study, a level geography: iczm vs smp, apple inc.: an example of a tnc, changing places 20 mark questions.

Profile Picture

Sets found in the same folder

Changing places.

Profile Picture

AQA A Level Geography - Global Systems and Go…

Global systems & global governance.

Profile Picture

South Sudan - Case Study, Food Shortages

Profile Picture

Other sets by this creator

Sub-topic 2.2 communities and ecosystems, sub-topic 1.5 humans and pollution, sub-topic 1.4 sustainability, edexcel igcse geography - rural environments…, verified questions.

What types of service businesses might have high fixed costs?

After you finish this chapter, you might want to take inventory of the scarce resources you own. Classify each of the following items as land, labor, physical capital, human capital, entrepreneurship, or not counted as a scarce resource.

the area in your yard where you plant vegetables

The Student Council at Merrick High School is having a meeting on student parking issues for their 210 seniors. The event "goes out for lunch with their cars" is represented by L. The event "has a first period class" is represented by F. From a survey, they find out that there are 90 students who go out for lunch with their cars, 60 of which do not have a first period class. They also find out that 80 students do not go out for lunch with their cars and these 80 students also do not have a first period class. How many students have a first period class but do not take their cars out for lunch? (Hint: Draw a Venn diagram.)

Visit any local store that sells goods on credit—appliances, cars, or furniture, for example. Ask the owner or manager about the type of information that the store is required to disclose when the sale is made. Obtain copies of the disclosure forms and share them with your classmates.

Recommended textbook solutions

Mathematics with Business Applications 6th Edition by McGraw-Hill Education

Mathematics with Business Applications

Operations Management: Sustainability and Supply Chain Management 12th Edition by Barry Render, Chuck Munson, Jay Heizer

Operations Management: Sustainability and Supply Chain Management

Social Psychology 10th Edition by Elliot Aronson, Robin M. Akert, Samuel R. Sommers, Timothy D. Wilson

Social Psychology

HDEV5 6th Edition by Spencer A. Rathus

Other Quizlet sets

Pediatrics test 1 guide.

Profile Picture

PTA 125 Unit 13: Posture

Profile Picture

pathophysiology test 3 - set 1

Profile Picture

globalisation tnc case study

Accessibility links

Case study - emerging and developing country - India

India is classified as an emerging and developing country (EDC) that is experiencing rapid economic development. This is leading to social and cultural changes.

The role of transnational corporations (TNCs)

Many transnational corporations (TNCs) have set up factories and offices in India. The country is an attractive location to TNCs because the population speak good English, they have strong IT skills and they work for lower wages than people in many other countries. Companies like Toyota, Volvo and Hyundai manufacture cars in India. Companies like ASDA, BT and Virgin Media have call centres in India.

Advantages of TNCs in India

There are many advantages of TNCs. India has benefited in many ways:

Disadvantages of TNCs in India

There have also been some disadvantages of TNCs in India:

GCSE Subjects GCSE Subjects up down

Transnational Corporations: A Case Study

globalisation tnc case study

Show More Globalisation Facilitating the Growth of Power for Transnational Corporations Globalisation has facilitated the growth of Transnational Corporations to develop a power greater than ever before. Allowing these corporations to expand all over the world. Completed through the international effort to develop and improve economies, technology, trade and communication ("What is globalization ? definition and meaning", 2016). The advancements globalisation has provided have progressively allowed TNCs to become increasingly powerful actors in the global political arena. One specific example would be Apple and their particular influence on the global market and the advancement of technology. Globalisation can be defined as the process and worldwide movement through the interaction and integration amongst people, companies and governments of different states ("What Is Globalization? | Globalization101", 2016). A Transnational Corporation is essentially a business that operates and conducts business activities in multiple countries around the world (Batten, 2011). Playing a major role in the process of globalisation assisting and further developing economies, communication systems, transportation systems and the spread of ideas and cultures (Study, 2016). Through corporation’s mergers and acquisitions, TNCs have grown extremely …show more content… The first is that they increase employment through the creation of new jobs. They provide a nation’s people with an income essentially raising individuals and in turn they country out of poverty because they can earn more money to spend more money. TNCs also increase the demand and can afford to pay for a nations services and products, such as transportation, primary products and things like roads to transport their goods, electricity, water and plumbing all to operate. They transfer new innovations and trends to the developing world. Increase the industrial and economic

Related Documents

Effects of globalization on business.

Also, global trade increases consumers of the companies which in turn raises the income of firms. Additionally, global trade results in advance payments. Companies will be able to buy their raw materials for manufacturing products with the money paid earlier to them. Purdy (2011) stated in his article that global trade makes foreign company to pay their amount in advance. When a company receives payments immediately from the foreign company, it reduces payment risk.…

Characteristics Of Globalization

This is also a great way for these global cities to improve the development of their worldwide corporations. This technique has made global cities get wealthier and also create corporations that are now worth…

How Does Globalization Affect The World Economy

There are so many factors which are thought to affect globalization both in the market and production process. There has been an advancement made by large segments of the world population in this age of globalization. There is good evidence that globalization has led to increased production and also at the same time increased the markets for these goods and services. Let us see some of the factors which are said to have accelerated the production and market globalization (Kawai, 2002, p. 167-204). The modern technologies are one of the factors which are thought to have accelerated production and the global market (Pollard et al, p. 775).…

How Did The Textile Industry Affect Britain's Economy

The textile industry is a popular subject that comes to mind when thinking about the industrial revolution.The sales of the spinning jenny and other textile advancements were massively popular and therefore helped improve the economy. The textile industry became so big, it had a revolutionary effect on Britain's economy. The ever improving textile inventions helped to continue Britain’s economic growth. The spinning jenny and the water frame were eventually used to create more profitable inventions that had to do with energy like the steam engine, this caused even more economic growth. With new inventions that made even more money, the textile industry grew and was able to produce more yarn and faster spinning techniques, which in turn led to the economy growing even more.…

Business Strategy Summary

A lot of businesses are expanding globally. There are a lot of prominent businesses that have increased their revenue 100% by expanding to other countries to sell their goods and services. In some instances, other countries buy the products more than Americans, so the demand in other countries is higher than the demand in the United States. Becoming familiar with business organizational performance was another topic that stood out to me. Planning and performing at a level of prestige is imperative for any business and/or organization.…

Economic Liberalization And Globalization In India

Economic liberalization and globalization have introduced Indian society to the global market in which India has developed a transnational labour force in technology call centers and an increasing consumer market within major urban areas. Furthermore, through globalization India has experienced large-scale diasporic emigration to European, South East Asian, Middle Eastern, and North American countries. Globalization has drastically altered manner in which labour is organized worldwide. This global labour market has created a new transnational labour force. Call centres in major Indian cities illustrate the proliferation of a transnational labour forces that developed due to globalization and economic liberalization.…

Jack Ma Case Study

1. INTRODUCTION Entrepreneurship has taken the centre stage and the interest in it has increased noticeably. Entrepreneurs are commonly assumed as domestic national assets which can be refined, driven and rewarded to the greatest possible level. How we live and work are changed by the entrepreneurs with their successful innovations which improve the standard of living. In addition to them creating a fortune from their undertakings, they create jobs for the country.…

The Pros And Cons Of International Marketing

Sometimes this approach is referred to as hybrid marketing channel (Mathews et al 2015). Companies operating under multichannel are mainly the huge companies which face extensively complex competition all over the world. With every new channel created, the company has the chance of expanding its market coverage thus gaining more chances of globalizing its services. Importance of…

Characteristics Of Global Capital Markets

One of the growth and characteristics of global capital markets that really impresses me is “global flows”. The world today is witnessing an intensification of circuits of economic, political, cultural, and environmental interdependence. This is a world in which the rapid spurt in the flows of capital, people, goods, images and ideologies across the face of the globe has brought even the most remote parts of the world in contact with metropolitan hubs. This movement has reached levels never imagined before. It has been shown, that countries with a larger amount of connections in the global network of flows get richer, they increase their GDP.…

SWOT Analysis: Fedex

FedEx is working on network expansion to provide growth. FedEx is strongly focused on network expansion to drive growth. They are focusing on other countries and by doing so I believe this can have a good increase on the company making more money and continuing to stay ahead of their competitors. (FedEx, 2014). 3.…

Related Topics

Ready To Get Started?

globalisation tnc case study

TNCs and globalisation: Prime sources of worsening ecological crisis

The failure of the Rio Summit to address the crucial issue of transnational corporations (TNCs) and their culpability for the global ecological crisis was perhaps the Summit's major failing. Since Rio, the processes of liberalisation, commercialisation and globalisation have facilitated the expansion of TNCs and their destructive impact on the environment. Meanwhile, within many countries, particularly those in the South, the same processes embodied in structural adjustment programmes (SAPs), have accelerated the development of environmentally harmful patterns of production and consumption.

Globalisation and ecological deterioration

If the post-UNCED processes have failed to resolve the development and social aspects of sustainable development, the record in relation to the environment is also very disappointing. The major reason for this is that the powerful commercial and financial interests have succeeded in pushing liberalisation and the 'free market' approach to be the overriding priority in the policies and policy framework of most governments. Environmental concerns, together with social and development concerns, fell several notches in the political agenda, internationally and nationally.

The inescapable overriding conclusion of an objective assessment of the environment would be that liberalisation, commercialisation and globalisation together with the logic of the race to retain or gain 'competitiveness' have undermined sustainable development both as a principle and as a programme.

The most important task in slowing down or preventing even greater environmental abuse is to build up (or re-build) public opinion and the political will on the necessity of placing long-term and public sustainability concerns above (or, to begin with, at least on par with) short-term and narrow commercial interests. Since the liberalisation/globalisation process is the main source of the increased ecological problems, the key to preventing a further worsening of environmental crises is to create conditions for state, inter-state and public intervention in free-market forces. The present reluctance of political leaders to institute policies that alter or temper the present pro-free market approach (or worse, their belief in the impossibility of instituting such policies) and to make businesses more publicly accountable and responsible, is at the root of the current environmental impasse.

Liberalisation and globalisation are related to the worsening of the global environment in various ways:

* The failure to internationally monitor and regulate TNCs, and the moves instead to widen their rights and access, have led to a spectacular rise in their power and authority. TNCs have generally and rapidly expanded the outreach and volume of their activities. This has correspondingly increased the damage caused to the environment in terms of volume and geographical spread.

* Liberalisation policies and global market integration have facilitated the institutions and activities that contributed to greater exploitation and depletion of biological diversity and resources such as forests and fishery resources and which promote and expand environmentally harmful land-based activities (agriculture and aquaculture), that lead to continued depletion of biodiversity.

* Other resources continue to be depleted beyond sustainable rates, such as water, soil and minerals. Liberalisation has opened up more mining concessions and a new wave of environmentally damaging mining activities.

* The lack of financial flows to, and resources in, most developing countries (accompanied by continuing debt and commodity price problems), and the persistence of structural adjustment restrictions and policies have meant a great lack of resources or 'economic space' in many of these countries to implement or change towards environmentally sound production.

* There is little improvement in technology. There is no real will to change harmful production methods. The promised technology transfer to the South has not taken place; instead new obstacles have emerged, such as enhanced IPR protection. Harmful technologies continue to be exported to the South and new technologies are being spread before adequate assessment and regulation.

* There is slow progress in reducing the trade in toxic and hazardous substances and products, and the export of these to the South has continued and even increased.

* The emphasis on the need to be competitive has meant slow progress (and in some countries an actual rolling back) in the control of pollution and energy use. Big infrastructure projects that are ecologically harmful are proliferating. The race to earn foreign exchange has led to increased tourism promotion and activities, with their side effects.

* With the accelerated spread of information and communications technology products, consumer culture has become more widespread. In the North and among Southern elite, there is little progress in curbing wasteful lifestyles. On the whole, there is an increase in unsustainable consumption patterns.

The rise of TNCs and the environmental implications

On the eve of the Earth Summit in 1992, the Third World Network made the assessment that the 'biggest gap in the UNCED documents being signed in Rio is the absence of proposals for the international regulation or control of big businesses and transnational corporations to ensure that they reduce or stop activities that are harmful to the environment, health and development.' (TWN 1992). The fact is TNCs account for the largest part of global economic activity and are the main entities responsible for the global environment crisis. TWN expressed concern that the UNCED secretariat had downgraded the need to strengthen regulation of TNCs (for example, the shelving the UN Centre on TNC's recommendations, requested for by the ECOSOC) and instead promoted self-regulation through a Business Council for Sustainable Development. 'A voluntary set of principles cannot be an adequate replacement for multilaterally agreed regulations which states industry and TNCs are obliged to follow,' the TWN concluded.

Following the Rio Summit, the trend of deregulating of TNCs and of granting them more rights and freedoms, without corresponding accountability, has greatly accelerated, particularly with the conclusion of the Uruguay Round agreements. This trend is likely to spurt ahead further if the OECD proposals for a multilateral agreement on investment and the WTO more on investment, competition and government procurement succeed.

That TNCs are the most important players involved in environmentally damaging activities can be gauged from the following:

* TNC activities generate more than half of the greenhouse gases emitted by industrial sectors with the greatest impact on global warming.

* TNCs have virtually exclusive control of the production and use of ozone-destroying CFCs and related compounds.

* In mining, TNCs still dominate key industries and are intensifying their activities. In aluminium, for example, six companies control 63% of the mining capacity.

* In agriculture, TNCs control 80% of land worldwide cultivated for export crops; and 20 firms account for 90% of pesticide sales.

* TNCs manufacture most of the world's chlorine, the basis for some of the most toxic chemicals including PCBs, DDT and dioxins.

* TNCs are the main transmitters of environmentally unsound production systems, hazardous materials and products to the Third World. For example, 25% of pesticide exports from the US in the late 1980s were chemicals banned or withdrawn in the US itself.

* TNCs dominate the trade in (and in many cases the extraction or exploitation of) natural resources and commodities that contribute to depletion or degradation of forests, water and marine resources, and toxic wastes and unsafe products.

* Through advertising and product promotion, they also promote a culture of unsustainable consumption.

Case studies of the recent performance of 20 TNCs by Greer and Bruno show that despite the improved public relations exercises designated to foster the image of greater environmental responsibility and despite more voluntary codes of conduct by industry, there has been few change with the corporations continuing with activities that are environmentally harmful.

With their growth, both in production volume and the geographical scope, big companies, based largely on the continuing use of unsustainable production systems and the promotion of wasteful lifestyles (which in many cases displace more sustainable systems or lifestyles) more environmental degradation worldwide must be expected.

Because of their greater technological capacity, the use of production techniques or substances that are often more ecologically damaging, and the larger volume of production that they characterise, TNCs usually have a negative effect on the environment when they newly produce in, or export to (or increase their activities in) an area. With the increasing spread and market penetration and share of TNCs and big business concerns, the damaging environmental effect have increased. This effect is not been confined to Northern-based companies. In recent years there has been a significant increase in overseas investment and activities by companies based in developing countries, especially in East and South- East Asian. For example, these companies account for a large part of new and increased forest logging and deforestation in Indochina, the Pacific and South America.

Liberalisation policies and the environment

Within countries, the processes of liberalisation, commercialisation and deregulation have generally had adverse implications for the environment. This is true in the North as well as the South. In developing countries, whilst much of the research on structural adjustment programmes (SAPs) has focused on the development aspects of sustainability, there is a growing body of evidence that it has also contributed to the process of environmental deterioration.

In the designing of SAPs, environmental concerns have not been explicitly taken into account. The deregulation, privatisation and liberalisation measures that lie at the heart of SAPs have accelerated the development of environmentally harmful patterns of production and consumption, whilst the reduction of government budgets has affected the state's capacity to deal with environmental problems.

By promoting external liberalisation, SAP has encouraged the increase in the extraction and export of raw materials in many countries, thus contributing to resource depletion and degradation. The growth of poverty and inequities resulting from debt and SAP has also pushed poor farmers and communities to opening up forests to eke a living from the land.

According to Walden Bello (1994), most of the top 15 Third World debtors have tripled the rate of exploitation of their forests since the late 1970s. This is related to the survival imperative of poor, landless people and the pressing need of nations to gain foreign exchange for debt servicing. Bello has also summarised detailed case studies of four countries that adopted SAP (Chile, Costa Rica, Ghana and the Philippines), demonstrating the dynamics and interrelations between structural adjustment, poverty, market liberalisation and environmental degradation. In these countries, the overriding need to service debts led to an emphasis on expanding exports of natural resources and commodities (such as timber, fish, bananas, cocoa and minerals). Moreover, SAPs- induced poverty resulted in a situation where landless farmers had to exploit forest, land and fishery resources. The result was rapid depletion and degradation of the fragile natural resource base in these countries.

The environment and health conditions in many Third World countries has also been adversely affected by import liberalisation, promoted through SAP as well as through the trade measures of the US administration (through its Super and Section 301 laws) and GATT. For instance, there has been a significant increase in the incidence of smoking in several Asian countries that were compelled to facilitate the increased importation of cigarettes. Import liberalisation has also resulted in the proliferation of modern consumer products (aimed initially at the higher-income groups that have benefited from SAPs) which promote environmentally unsustainable consumption patterns. There is a danger these imported and well-advertised products may replace and displace more socially appropriate and environmentally friendly local products, including those now used by ordinary people.

According to UNRISD (1995), the effectiveness of policy responses to environmental degradation is often curtailed by adjustment: 'In general terms, there are three main variants of environmental policy approaches; conservationism, primary environmental care and environmental economics. The potential of all of these to alleviate environmental problems has been limited by the economic and social changes that have accompanied economic restructuring.' For example, SAPs-induced agricultural export growth often has negative environmental effects, especially where ecological conditions are such that export crop cultivation is less sustainable than that of traditional food crops. Conservation programmes and environmental protection agencies are also most vulnerable to government spending cuts. Also, SAPs undermine the potential for community-based action and weakens the capacity of communities to adapt to changing ecological conditions, thus reducing the possibility of implementing the community-based 'primary environmental care' approach.

The environmental effects of trade and trade liberalisation in the transfer of inappropriate technologies, production methods and consumption patterns has been examined in Khor (1996). The view that 'free trade' is the best route to environmental protection (because it generates wealth to pay for protection measures) ignores the role that trade liberalisation plays in facilitating resource depletion and unsustainable production and consumption patterns. The present pattern of trade has in fact helped accelerate environmental degradation worldwide.

Investment liberalisation, without corresponding tightening of regulation but instead accompanied by further deregulation, can be predicted to accelerate the process further. The higher flows of FDI in recent years to developing countries is increasing the tempo of ecologically-damaging activities. The proposed multilateral agreement on investment (developed in the OECD) and similar moves in the WTO to liberalise investment rules will have very wide environmental implications, and have raised serious concerns with many environmental groups. (TWR No. 81/82, May/June 1997)

3.3B - Role of TNCs

globalisation tnc case study


  1. Globalisation Tn Cs Bv

    globalisation tnc case study

  2. Nike

    globalisation tnc case study

  3. Case Study TNC’s and globalisation / Global Governance / AQA Geography A level

    globalisation tnc case study

  4. nike globalisation good or bad

    globalisation tnc case study

  5. Nike

    globalisation tnc case study

  6. TNC

    globalisation tnc case study


  1. I Wasn't Thinking Big Enough

  2. New Direction #63

  3. English Writing Practice ☆ January 4, 2022

  4. পিথাগোরাস সম্পর্কিত অংক করার অসাধারণ টেকনিক-class-09/10/SSC _by Mottasin Sir

  5. Study LIve !!〔勉強ライブ〕〔study with me〕until23〔JapanTime〕高校生と一緒に作業しよう

  6. Miracle Series : His Spirit and Miracles


  1. What Is a Case Study?

    When you’re performing research as part of your job or for a school assignment, you’ll probably come across case studies that help you to learn more about the topic at hand. But what is a case study and why are they helpful? Read on to lear...

  2. Why Are Case Studies Important?

    Case studies are important because they help make something being discussed more realistic for both teachers and learners. Case studies help students to see that what they have learned is not purely theoretical but instead can serve to crea...

  3. What Are Some Examples of Case Studies?

    Examples of a case study could be anything from researching why a single subject has nightmares when they sleep in their new apartment, to why a group of people feel uncomfortable in heavily populated areas. A case study is an in-depth anal...

  4. TNCs

    Faster and cheaper transport e.g. containerisation as a result of globalisation. 4. Diversifying products to fit into another economy or region e.g. Apple makes

  5. TNCs

    Aspects of globalisation - a case study of a TNC. Shell. Shell is one of the richest companies on Earth, does business in many countries and deals with

  6. NIKE

    globalisation. The headquarters of Nike are in Beaverton, Oregon in.

  7. Nike

    A case study about the transnational corporation, NIKE. Ideal for anyone studying A Level Geography. ... History of Globalisation.

  8. Transnational Corporations (TNC's)

    Case Study: Tesco – A Transnational Retailer. The supermarket chain Tesco is one of the few leading TNCs with its head offices in the UK.

  9. Globalisation

    Globalisation - Apple Inc Case study: TNCs.

  10. The role of transnational corporations (TNCs)

    Many transnational corporations. (TNCs) have set up factories and offices in India. The country is an attractive location to TNCs because the population speak

  11. Transnational Corporations: A Case Study

    The advancements globalisation has provided have progressively allowed TNCs to become increasingly powerful actors in the global political arena. One specific

  12. TNC Case Study

    Essential TNC case study - Toyota tnc case study toyota introduction toyota motor corporation is transnational car manufacturer, with its headquarters

  13. TNCs and globalisation: Prime sources of worsening ecological crisis

    Case studies of the recent performance of 20 TNCs by Greer and Bruno show that

  14. 3B Role of TNCs

    TNCs are important in globalisation, (P: role of TNCs) both contributing to its spread (global production networks, glocalisation and the development of new