- Visit journal homepage
- Submit your paper
- Open access options
- Track your paper
- Order journal
- View articles
- Editorial board
- Browse journals
- Guide for authors
Guide for Authors
Cognition is an international journal that publishes theoretical and experimental papers on the study of the mind. It covers a wide variety of subjects concerning all the different aspects of cognition, ranging from experimental studies of behavior and of the brain to formal analysis.
Papers will be selected on the basis of their scientific quality, their degree of innovation and their unambiguous theoretical advance to the study of cognition. Paper's overall soundness of the argument and degree of empirical motivation, especially from converging sources, are more important than adherence to specific methodological principles. Studies that selectively focus on the cognitive and neural mechanisms that underlie problems with cognition in clinical populations or on purely methodological questions fall outside the scope of Cognition . Because Cognition enjoys a wide readership from many disciplines, authors should explicitly consider the general theoretical issues raised by their work and its relevance to other topics and methods. Materials should describe work done and methods used in a clear and explicit manner (allowing reproduction of the methods by others).
Contributions: • Full theoretical and experimental papers on the study of the mind. •Brief articles reporting original empirical findings, major theoretical advances or crucial developments that warrant rapid communication to the scientific community •Proposals for special issues on a new and important area in the field •Discussions
Your Paper Your Way We now differentiate between the requirements for new and revised submissions. You may choose to submit your manuscript as a single Word or PDF file to be used in the refereeing process. Only when your paper is at the revision stage, will you be requested to put your paper in to a 'correct format' for acceptance and provide the items required for the publication of your article. To find out more, please visit the Preparation section below.
Types of contribution • Full theoretical and experimental papers on the study of the mind • Brief articles reporting original empirical findings, major theoretical advances or crucial developments that warrant rapid communication to the scientific community •Proposals for special issues on a new and important area in the field •Discussions
Contact details for submission Any questions prior to submission (e.g. appropriateness of manuscript) can be sent to "Cognition", to [email protected]
Ensure that the following items are present:
All necessary files have been uploaded: Manuscript : • Include keywords • All figures (include relevant captions) • All tables (including titles, description, footnotes) • Ensure all figure and table citations in the text match the files provided • Indicate clearly if color should be used for any figures in print Graphical Abstracts / Highlights files (where applicable) Supplemental files (where applicable)
For further information, visit our Support Center .
Ethics in publishing Please see our information on Ethics in publishing .
Authors should include a statement in the manuscript that informed consent was obtained for experimentation with human subjects. The privacy rights of human subjects must always be observed.
Declaration of interest All authors must disclose any financial and personal relationships with other people or organizations that could inappropriately influence (bias) their work. Examples of potential competing interests include employment, consultancies, stock ownership, honoraria, paid expert testimony, patent applications/registrations, and grants or other funding. Authors must disclose any interests in two places: 1. A summary declaration of interest statement in the title page file (if double anonymized) or the manuscript file (if single anonymized). If there are no interests to declare then please state this: 'Declarations of interest: none'. 2. Detailed disclosures as part of a separate Declaration of Interest form, which forms part of the journal's official records. It is important for potential interests to be declared in both places and that the information matches. More information .
Preprints Please note that preprints can be shared anywhere at any time, in line with Elsevier's sharing policy . Sharing your preprints e.g. on a preprint server will not count as prior publication (see ' Multiple, redundant or concurrent publication ' for more information).
During submission to Editorial Manager, you can choose to release your manuscript publicly as a preprint on the preprint server SSRN once it enters peer-review with the journal. Your choice will have no effect on the editorial process or outcome with the journal. Please note that the corresponding author is expected to seek approval from all co-authors before agreeing to release the manuscript publicly on SSRN.
Reporting sex- and gender-based analyses Reporting guidance For research involving or pertaining to humans, animals or eukaryotic cells, investigators should integrate sex and gender-based analyses (SGBA) into their research design according to funder/sponsor requirements and best practices within a field. Authors should address the sex and/or gender dimensions of their research in their article. In cases where they cannot, they should discuss this as a limitation to their research's generalizability. Importantly, authors should explicitly state what definitions of sex and/or gender they are applying to enhance the precision, rigor and reproducibility of their research and to avoid ambiguity or conflation of terms and the constructs to which they refer (see Definitions section below). Authors can refer to the Sex and Gender Equity in Research (SAGER) guidelines and the SAGER guidelines checklist . These offer systematic approaches to the use and editorial review of sex and gender information in study design, data analysis, outcome reporting and research interpretation - however, please note there is no single, universally agreed-upon set of guidelines for defining sex and gender.
Author contributions For transparency, we encourage authors to submit an author statement file outlining their individual contributions to the paper using the relevant CRediT roles: Conceptualization; Data curation; Formal analysis; Funding acquisition; Investigation; Methodology; Project administration; Resources; Software; Supervision; Validation; Visualization; Roles/Writing - original draft; Writing - review & editing. Authorship statements should be formatted with the names of authors first and CRediT role(s) following. More details and an example .
Article transfer service This journal uses the Elsevier Article Transfer Service to find the best home for your manuscript. This means that if an editor feels your manuscript is more suitable for an alternative journal, you might be asked to consider transferring the manuscript to such a journal. The recommendation might be provided by a Journal Editor, a dedicated Scientific Managing Editor , a tool assisted recommendation, or a combination. If you agree, your manuscript will be transferred, though you will have the opportunity to make changes to the manuscript before the submission is complete. Please note that your manuscript will be independently reviewed by the new journal. More information .
Subscribers may reproduce tables of contents or prepare lists of articles including abstracts for internal circulation within their institutions. Permission of the Publisher is required for resale or distribution outside the institution and for all other derivative works, including compilations and translations. If excerpts from other copyrighted works are included, the author(s) must obtain written permission from the copyright owners and credit the source(s) in the article. Elsevier has preprinted forms for use by authors in these cases.
Author rights As an author you (or your employer or institution) have certain rights to reuse your work. More information .
Role of the funding source You are requested to identify who provided financial support for the conduct of the research and/or preparation of the article and to briefly describe the role of the sponsor(s), if any, in study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication. If the funding source(s) had no such involvement, it is recommended to state this.
Elsevier Researcher Academy Researcher Academy is a free e-learning platform designed to support early and mid-career researchers throughout their research journey. The "Learn" environment at Researcher Academy offers several interactive modules, webinars, downloadable guides and resources to guide you through the process of writing for research and going through peer review. Feel free to use these free resources to improve your submission and navigate the publication process with ease.
Submission Our online submission system guides you stepwise through the process of entering your article details and uploading your files. The system converts your article files to a single PDF file used in the peer-review process. Editable files (e.g., Word, LaTeX) are required to typeset your article for final publication. All correspondence, including notification of the Editor's decision and requests for revision, is sent by e-mail.
We strive to return a decision on Full articles within three months on the advice of at least two reviewers, and on Brief articles within six to eight weeks. Delays can be incurred if reviewers are unable to return their reviews to us within the requested period, or if we need to find alternative reviewers.
The covering letter Articles for submission should be accompanied by a covering letter which summarizes, in no more than a short paragraph, the novel empirical and/or theoretical contribution of the paper. This paragraph should convey how the work constrains current theorizing over and above the current literature. Cognition aims to publish material that is highly innovative with respect to advancing theory, and this summary may be used to s the triage process. Authors should also ensure that readers can quickly establish the advance afforded by the paper when reading its introduction and/or discussion sections.
Queries For questions about the editorial process (including the status of manuscripts under review) or for technical support on submissions, please visit our Support Center .
References There are no strict requirements on reference formatting at submission. References can be in any style or format as long as the style is consistent. Where applicable, author(s) name(s), journal title/book title, chapter title/article title, year of publication, volume number/book chapter and the article number or pagination must be present. Use of DOI is highly encouraged. The reference style used by the journal will be applied to the accepted article by Elsevier at the proof stage. Note that missing data will be highlighted at proof stage for the author to correct.
Figures and tables embedded in text Please ensure the figures and the tables included in the single file are placed next to the relevant text in the manuscript, rather than at the bottom or the top of the file. The corresponding caption should be placed directly below the figure or table.
REVISED SUBMISSIONS We accept most word processing formats, but Word is preferred. When submitting your revised paper, we ask that you include a Response to Reviewers (mandatory). This should be a separate file labeled "Response to Reviewers" that carefully addresses, point-by-point, the issues raised. You should also include a suitable rebuttal to any specific request for change that you have not made. Mention the page, paragraph, and line number of any revisions that are made.
Introduction State the objectives of the work and provide an adequate background, avoiding a detailed literature survey or a summary of the results.
Theory/calculation A Theory section should extend, not repeat, the background to the article already dealt with in the Introduction and lay the foundation for further work. In contrast, a Calculation section represents a practical development from a theoretical basis.
Discussion This should explore the significance of the results of the work, not repeat them. A combined Results and Discussion section is often appropriate. Avoid extensive citations and discussion of published literature.
Appendices If there is more than one appendix, they should be identified as A, B, etc. Formulae and equations in appendices should be given separate numbering: Eq. (A.1), Eq. (A.2), etc.; in a subsequent appendix, Eq. (B.1) and so on. Similarly for tables and figures: Table A.1; Fig. A.1, etc.
Highlights Highlights are optional yet highly encouraged for this journal, as they increase the discoverability of your article via search engines. They consist of a short collection of bullet points that capture the novel results of your research as well as new methods that were used during the study (if any). Please have a look at the examples here: example Highlights .
Abstract A concise and factual abstract is required. The abstract should state briefly the purpose of the research, the principal results and major conclusions. An abstract is often presented separately from the article, so it must be able to stand alone. For this reason, References should be avoided, but if essential, then cite the author(s) and year(s). Also, non-standard or uncommon abbreviations should be avoided, but if essential they must be defined at their first mention in the abstract itself.
Keywords Immediately after the abstract, provide a maximum of 6 keywords, using British spelling and avoiding general and plural terms and multiple concepts (avoid, for example, 'and', 'of'). Be sparing with abbreviations: only abbreviations firmly established in the field may be eligible. These keywords will be used for indexing purposes.
Acknowledgements Collate acknowledgements in a separate section at the end of the article before the references and do not, therefore, include them on the title page, as a footnote to the title or otherwise. List here those individuals who provided help during the research (e.g., providing language help, writing assistance or proof reading the article, etc.).
Funding: This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health [grant numbers xxxx, yyyy]; the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Seattle, WA [grant number zzzz]; and the United States Institutes of Peace [grant number aaaa].
If no funding has been provided for the research, it is recommended to include the following sentence:
Footnotes Footnotes should be used sparingly. Number them consecutively throughout the article. Many word processors build footnotes into the text, and this feature may be used. Should this not be the case, indicate the position of footnotes in the text and present the footnotes themselves separately at the end of the article.
Electronic artwork General points • Make sure you use uniform lettering and sizing of your original artwork. • Preferred fonts: Arial (or Helvetica), Times New Roman (or Times), Symbol, Courier. • Number the illustrations according to their sequence in the text. • Use a logical naming convention for your artwork files. • Indicate per figure if it is a single, 1.5 or 2-column fitting image. • For Word submissions only, you may still provide figures and their captions, and tables within a single file at the revision stage. • Please note that individual figure files larger than 10 MB must be provided in separate source files.
Color artwork Please make sure that artwork files are in an acceptable format (TIFF (or JPEG), EPS (or PDF), or MS Office files) and with the correct resolution. If, together with your accepted article, you submit usable color figures then Elsevier will ensure, at no additional charge, that these figures will appear in color online (e.g., ScienceDirect and other sites) regardless of whether or not these illustrations are reproduced in color in the printed version. For color reproduction in print, you will receive information regarding the costs from Elsevier after receipt of your accepted article . Please indicate your preference for color: in print or online only. Further information on the preparation of electronic artwork .
Tables Please submit tables as editable text and not as images. Tables can be placed either next to the relevant text in the article, or on separate page(s) at the end. Number tables consecutively in accordance with their appearance in the text and place any table notes below the table body. Be sparing in the use of tables and ensure that the data presented in them do not duplicate results described elsewhere in the article. Please avoid using vertical rules and shading in table cells.
Citation in text Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa). Any references cited in the abstract must be given in full. Unpublished results and personal communications are not recommended in the reference list, but may be mentioned in the text. If these references are included in the reference list they should follow the standard reference style of the journal and should include a substitution of the publication date with either 'Unpublished results' or 'Personal communication'. Citation of a reference as 'in press' implies that the item has been accepted for publication.
Data references This journal encourages you to cite underlying or relevant datasets in your manuscript by citing them in your text and including a data reference in your Reference List. Data references should include the following elements: author name(s), dataset title, data repository, version (where available), year, and global persistent identifier. Add [dataset] immediately before the reference so we can properly identify it as a data reference. The [dataset] identifier will not appear in your published article.
References in a special issue Please ensure that the words 'this issue' are added to any references in the list (and any citations in the text) to other articles in the same Special Issue.
Reference formatting There are no strict requirements on reference formatting at submission. References can be in any style or format as long as the style is consistent. Where applicable, author(s) name(s), journal title/book title, chapter title/article title, year of publication, volume number/book chapter and the article number or pagination must be present. Use of DOI is highly encouraged. The reference style used by the journal will be applied to the accepted article by Elsevier at the proof stage. Note that missing data will be highlighted at proof stage for the author to correct. If you do wish to format the references yourself they should be arranged according to the following examples:
Journal abbreviations source Journal names should be abbreviated according to the List of Title Word Abbreviations .
Data visualization Include interactive data visualizations in your publication and let your readers interact and engage more closely with your research. Follow the instructions here to find out about available data visualization options and how to include them with your article.
Data Archiving Policy * Cognition aims to encourage meta-analysis and to facilitate understanding of the data underlying articles published in the journal. Authors of all published papers will therefore be asked to make their raw data publically available whenever possible. "Data" refers to an electronic file containing non-identified responses that are potentially already coded. Normally, the data would represent an early stage of electronic processing, before individual responses have been aggregated. The data must be in a form that allows all reported statistical analyses to be reproduced while retaining the confidentiality of individual participants. This entails that the data are formatted and documented in a way that makes the structure of the data set readily apparent. All empirical papers must archive their data upon acceptance in order to be published unless the authors provide a compelling reason why they cannot (e.g., expense, confidentiality). The action editor will be the final arbiter of whether the reason is sufficiently compelling. Data can be made publically available in different ways. Authors can submit their data as supplementary material (through our online submission system, selecting the submission item as ' Raw data ') together with their manuscript. Alternatively, there are multiple public repositories that are committed to providing public access into perpetuity: examples are the Open Science Framework, Dataverse, re3data.org and the Databibadd list. Personal websites and most departmental websites do not qualify as repositories because they are potentially transient. If data are archived in a public repository, a link to the data must be provided under the section heading "Supplementary material" in the manuscript. Note that any publication that reports analyses of or refers to archived data will be expected to cite the original publication in which the data were reported. For supplementary data submitted together with the final draft of an accepted manuscript, please note: Supplementary files supplied will be published online alongside the electronic version of your article in Elsevier Web products, including ScienceDirect: http://www.sciencedirect.com . In order to ensure that your submitted material is directly usable, please provide the data in one of our recommended file formats. Authors should submit the material in electronic format together with the article and supply a concise and descriptive caption for each file. For more detailed instructions please visit our artwork instruction pages at https://www.elsevier.com/artworkinstructions .
Below are a number of ways in which you can associate data with your article or make a statement about the availability of your data when submitting your manuscript. When sharing data in one of these ways, you are expected to cite the data in your manuscript and reference list. Please refer to the "References" section for more information about data citation. For more information on depositing, sharing and using research data and other relevant research materials, visit the research data page .
There are different ways to link your datasets to your article. When available, you can directly link your dataset to your article by providing the relevant information in the submission system. For more information, visit the database linking page .
In addition, you can link to relevant data or entities through identifiers within the text of your manuscript, using the following format: Database: xxxx (e.g., TAIR: AT1G01020; CCDC: 734053; PDB: 1XFN).
Research Elements is a suite of peer-reviewed, open access journals which make your research objects findable, accessible and reusable. Articles place research objects into context by providing detailed descriptions of objects and their application, and linking to the associated original research articles. Research Elements articles can be prepared by you, or by one of your collaborators.
More information can be found on the Research Elements page .
The journal appreciates that some authors would like to publish Gold Open Access but may not have enough funding to pay the APC. Cognition is launching an experiment to provide an author support fund, and while the details may change, the fund will start with an initial two-year commitment. Authors whose articles are accepted after 1 st May 2016 can apply by requesting a form from the editorial office: [email protected] .
Accepted authors always have the choice to publish their article as a subscription article at no cost (even after requesting an APC fee reduction), and can self-archive their article to follow the Green Open Access route . Cognition has an embargo period of 12 months.
Online proof correction To ensure a fast publication process of the article, we kindly ask authors to provide us with their proof corrections within two days. Corresponding authors will receive an e-mail with a link to our online proofing system, allowing annotation and correction of proofs online. The environment is similar to MS Word: in addition to editing text, you can also comment on figures/tables and answer questions from the Copy Editor. Web-based proofing provides a faster and less error-prone process by allowing you to directly type your corrections, eliminating the potential introduction of errors. If preferred, you can still choose to annotate and upload your edits on the PDF version. All instructions for proofing will be given in the e-mail we send to authors, including alternative methods to the online version and PDF. We will do everything possible to get your article published quickly and accurately. Please use this proof only for checking the typesetting, editing, completeness and correctness of the text, tables and figures. Significant changes to the article as accepted for publication will only be considered at this stage with permission from the Editor. It is important to ensure that all corrections are sent back to us in one communication. Please check carefully before replying, as inclusion of any subsequent corrections cannot be guaranteed. Proofreading is solely your responsibility.
Special issues Cognition occasionally publishes special issues devoted to a research area that has seen rapid recent progress, promising new approaches, and convergence among different disciplines. Each special issue is coordinated by a Guest Editor, who writes an introduction that describes the central questions in that area of research and allows readers in diverse fields, particularly graduate students, to understand the significance of the individual articles in the issue. Proposals for special issues may be submitted by individuals who are willing to serve as Guest Editor. The proposal should explain the topic and the rationale for dedicating a special issue to it at that moment, and a detailed list of likely authors and papers. The articles themselves should summarize the state of the art in a field, explore alternative theories, and present new data, theories, or critical and synthetic literature reviews. The special issue should represent diverse viewpoints while remaining focused on a cohesive topic. The issue should contain no more than five or six articles and be no more than 150 journal pages long. All proposals will be refereed. If a proposal is accepted, the Guest Editor can begin to solicit the papers in collaboration with the Editor-in-Chief. All papers must adhere to the standards of the journal and meet with the approval of three referees selected by the journal. The decision to accept or reject a submission to a special issue will be made by the Editor-in-Chief.
Elsevier.com visitor survey
We are always looking for ways to improve customer experience on Elsevier.com. We would like to ask you for a moment of your time to fill in a short questionnaire, at the end of your visit . If you decide to participate, a new browser tab will open so you can complete the survey after you have completed your visit to this website. Thanks in advance for your time.
- About the Journal
- Editorial Team
- Editorial Policies
- Registered Reports
- Statistical Analyses
- Issue Archive
- Special Collections
- Research Integrity
Internet Explorer version 9 and earlier are not supported ( why ?). Please use of a modern browser such as Firefox or Chrome.
Submitting an article online, author guidelines, submission preparation checklist, copyright notice, privacy statement, publication fees, submissions.
To submit an article online, and to check the status of your submission, you need to have an account with Journal of Cognition
Don't have an account? Register Here.
Article types | Structure | Permissions | Language & text | Data & Symbols | Figures & Tables | Audio/Visual material | Reproducibility/Data repositories | References
Submissions should be made electronically through this website.
Once a submission has been completed, the submitting author is able to fully track the status of the paper and complete requested revisions via their online profile.
Please ensure that you consider the following guidelines when preparing your manuscript. Failure to do so may delay the processing of your submission.
Note that word limits are meant as guidelines and some flexibility is permitted. All word limits include referencing and citation.
- Review articles provide a useful overview of a sub-field of cognition. A comprehensive meta-analysis or literature review may lead to the exposition of ground-breaking theoretical ideas, or might more simply serve as a contemporary introduction to a topic for interested readers. Papers should critically engage with the relevant body of extant literature.
- Research articles describe the outcomes and application of unpublished original research. These should make a substantial contribution to knowledge and understanding in the subject matter and should be supported by relevant figures, tabulated data, and if possible, raw anonymised data should be publicly available and linked. Research articles may be brief articles reporting a single study or longer reports of a series of studies. Brief articles should be reserved for situations where that study is clearly justified, well-constructed and analysed, thoroughly powered, and where the results are clear, convincing, and theoretically important. It is neither in ESCoP's nor the authors' best interests to publish a single-experiment report when the results of the sole experiment are vague, unconvincing, or insufficiently justified. Multi-experiment research articles should be no more than 8,000 words. Brief articles reporting a single experiment should be no more than 3,000 words.
- Registered reports are a form of empirical article in which the methods and proposed analyses are pre-registered and reviewed prior to the research being conducted. High quality protocols are then provisionally accepted for publication before data collection commences. Provisional acceptance indicates that the article will be published pending successful completion of the study according to the pre-registered methods and analytic procedures, as well as inclusion of a defensible and evidence-based interpretation of the results. This format is designed to minimize publication bias and research bias in hypothesis-driven research, while also allowing the flexibility to conduct exploratory (unregistered) analyses and report serendipitous findings. More information on the registered reports workflow and policies can be found on the Registered Reports page.
- Data reports present one (or multiple related) novel data set(s). In such reports, authors provide a short description of the topic under investigation, describe how and why the data were acquired, present analyses of the data, and a brief summary of the findings. The data set reported must be publicly available in a stable repository or archive. Data reports are intended to allow for the reporting of useful data sets from sound research. They should not focus on interpretation. Authors may choose to publish data reports in addition to comprehensive papers that include the use of the stimuli or the interpretation of the data. They may also choose to publish such reports in order to document the existence of potentially useful data that, for whatever reason, the research team do not intend to follow-up. Data reports allow authors to get credit for work they have completed and prevent useful data from languishing in the file drawer, reducing the incentive of authors to inflate the impact of their data in order to make it seem suitable for publication. Data reports should be no more than 3,000 words.
- Material development reports present a novel set of stimuli or materials that have been developed to a high standard, and that would be useful to other cognitive psychologists. The stimuli or materials reported in a material development report must be publicly available and licensed for general academic use. Stimulus development reports should be no more than 3,000 words (excluding the stimuli and materials if they are words).
- Method notes should outline and test new techniques relevant to cognitive psychologists and discuss potential applications and significance of the technique. In addition, articles that critique or modify extant methodologies and approaches are welcome. Authors should provide a detailed summary of the protocol followed and establish replicability within the body of the paper. Methods articles should be no longer than 3,000 words in length.
- Commentaries , short papers critiquing an article previously published in the Journal of Cognition, will be considered for publication by a selection of editorial board members. We also encourage readers to comment on articles in the Journal of Cognition using our online comment system. Authors interested in submitting a commentary piece may discuss the content with the editor before submitting a manuscript. Commentaries should be no longer than 1,000 words in length.
Title page Authors choose whether they want to be anonymous during peer review or not. Authors who want to ensure blind peer review should be careful to only list the title and abstract on the submitted manuscript file, not the author names, and to redact any other details within the manuscript that might reasonably lead to identification.
Note: Blind peer review is not mandatory: authors are responsible for anonymising their own manuscript. If your manuscript includes identifying information, we will assume that you have chosen to identify yourself to peer reviewers.
If the submission is not blinded, then author name(s), affiliation and contact details should be added to the title page.
Abstract Research articles must have the main text prefaced by an abstract of no more than 250 words summarising the main arguments and conclusions of the article. This must have the heading ‘Abstract’ and be easily identified from the start of the main text.
A list of up to six key words may be placed below the abstract (optional).
The Abstract and Keywords should also be added to the metadata when making the initial online submission.
Main text The body of the submission should be structured in a logical and easy to follow manner. A clear introduction section should be given that allows non-specialists in the subject an understanding of the publication and a background of the issue(s) involved. Methods, results, discussion and conclusion sections may then follow to clearly detail the information and research being presented.
Up to three level headings may be present and must be clearly identifiable using different font sizes, bold or italics. Please follow the APA guidelines for choosing heading levels and style.
Supplementary Files (optional) Any supplementary/additional files that should link to the main publication must be listed, with a corresponding number, title and option description. Ideally the supplementary files are also cited in the main text.
e.g. Supplementary file 1: Appendix. Scientific data related to the experiments.
Note: additional files will not be typeset so must be provided in their final form. They will be assigned a DOI and linked to from the publication.
Data Accessibility Statement (if applicable) Data Reports and Research Articles, along with any other submission that include the usage of data must include a statement providing a permanent link to a publicly-available data repository, or provide a statement to explain why the data cannot be made available (for example legal or ethical constraints). It is a mandatory requirement to make the data public unless it is impossible to do so.
Please provide a summary of information, along with a DOI that links to the deposited data.
Ethics and consent Research involving human subjects, human material, or human data, must have been performed in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki. Where applicable, studies must have been approved by an appropriate ethics committee and the authors should include a statement detailing this approval, including the name of the ethics committee and reference number of the approval. The identity of the research subject(s) must be anonymised whenever possible. For research involving human subjects, informed consent to participate in the study must be obtained from participants (or their legal guardian). A consent statement must be provided within the publication.
Experiments using animals must follow national standards of care. For further information, click here .
If ethical approval and/or consent was not required, please add such information to this section.
Acknowledgements (optional) Any acknowledgements must be headed and in a separate paragraph, placed after the main text but before the reference list.
Funding Information (optional) Should the research have received a funding grant then the grant provider and grant number should be detailed.
Competing interests If any of the authors have any competing interests then these must be declared. A short paragraph should be placed before the references. Guidelines for competing interests can be found here . If there are no competing interests to declare then the following statement should be present: The author(s) has/have no competing interests to declare.
Authors' contributions (recommended) A sentence or a short paragraph detailing the roles that each author held to contribute to the authorship of the submission.
References All references cited within the submission must be listed at the end of the main text file.
The author is responsible for obtaining all permissions required prior to submission of the manuscript. Permission and owner details should be mentioned for all third-party content included in the submission or used in the research.
If a method or tool is introduced in the study, including software, questionnaires, and scales, the license this is available under and any requirement for permission for use should be stated. If an existing method or tool is used in the research, it is the author's responsibility to check the license and obtain the necessary permissions. Statements confirming that permission was granted should be included in the Materials and Methods section.
Language & Text
Capitalisation For the submission title :
Capitalise all nouns, pronouns, adjectives, verbs, adverbs and subordinate conjunctions (i.e. as, because, although). Use lowercase for all articles, coordinate conjunctions and prepositions.
- Slip-Sliding on a Yellow Brick Road: Stabilization Efforts in Afghanistan
Headings within the main text :
First level headings in the text should follow the same rule as the main title.
For lower-level subheadings, only capitalise first letter and proper nouns.
Headings should be under 75 characters.
Spelling Submissions must be made in English. Authors are welcome to use American or British spellings as long as they are used consistently throughout the whole of the submission.
- Colour (UK) vs. Color (US)
When referring to proper nouns and normal institutional titles, the official, original spelling must be used.
- World Health Organization, not World Health Organisation
Grammar American or English grammar rules may be used as long as they are used consistently and match the spelling format (see above). For instance, you may use a serial comma or not.
- red, white, and blue OR red, white and blue
Font The font used should be commonly available and in an easily readable size. This may be changed during the typesetting process.
Underlined text should be avoided whenever possible.
Bold or italicised text to emphasise a point are permitted, although should be restricted to minimal occurrences to maximise their efficiency.
Lists Use bullet points to denote a list without hierarchy or order of value. If the list indicates a specific sequence then a numbered list must be used.
Lists should be used sparingly to maximise their impact.
Quotation marks Use single quotation marks except for quotes within another speech, in which case double quotation marks are used.
Quotations that are longer than three lines in length must be in an indented paragraph separate from the main text.
The standard, non-italicised font must be used for all quotes.
It must be clear from the text and/or citation where the quote is sourced. If quoting from material that is under copyright then permission will need to be obtained from the copyright holder.
Acronyms & Abbreviations With abbreviations, the crucial goal is to ensure that the reader – particularly one who may not be fully familiar with the topic or context being addressed – is able to follow along. Spell out almost all acronyms on first use, indicating the acronym in parentheses immediately thereafter. Use the acronym for all subsequent references.
- Research completed by the World Health Organization (WHO) shows …
A number of abbreviations are so common that they do not require the full text on the first instance. Examples of these can be found here .
Abbreviations should usually be in capital letters without full stops.
- USA, not U.S.A
Common examples from Latin origin do not follow this rule and should be lower case and can include full stops.
- e.g., i.e., etc.
Use of footnotes/endnotes Use endnotes rather than footnotes (we refer to these as ‘Notes’ in the online publication). These will appear at the end of the main text, before ‘References’.
All notes should be used only where crucial clarifying information needs to be conveyed.
Avoid using notes for purposes of referencing, with in-text citations used instead. If in-text citations cannot be used, a source can be cited as part of a note.
Please insert the endnote marker after the end punctuation.
Data & Symbols
Symbols Symbols are permitted within the main text and datasets as long as they are commonly in use or have explanatory definition on their first usage.
Hyphenation, em and en dashes There is no set rule on the use of hyphenation between words, as long as they are consistently used.
Em dashes should be used sparingly. If they are present, they should denote emphasis, change of thought or interruption to the main sentence and can replace commas, parentheses, colons or semi-colons.
- The president’s niece—daughter of his younger brother—caused a media scandal when…
En dashes can be used to replace ‘to’ when indicating a range. No space should surround the dash.
- 10-25 years
Numbers For numbers zero to nine please spell the whole words. Please use figures for numbers 10 or higher.
We are happy for authors to use either words or figures to represent large whole figures (i.e. one million or 1,000,000) as long as the usage is consistent throughout the text.
If the sentence includes a series of numbers then figures must be used in each instance.
- Artefacts were found at depths of 5, 9, and 29 cm.
If the number appears as part of a dataset, in conjunction with a symbol or as part of a table then the figure must be used.
- This study confirmed that 5% of…
If a sentence starts with a number it must be spelt, or the sentence should be re-written so that it no longer starts with the number.
- Fifteen examples were found to exist…
- The result showed that 15 examples existed…
Do not use a comma for a decimal place.
- 2.43 NOT 2,43
Numbers that are less than zero must have ‘0’ precede the decimal point.
- 0.24 NOT .24
Units of measurement Symbols following a figure to denote a unit of measurement must be taken from the latest SI brochure. See http://www.bipm.org/utils/common/pdf/si_brochure_8_en.pdf for the full brochure.
Formula Formulae must be proofed carefully by the author. Editors will not edit formulae. If special software has been used to create formulae, the way it is laid out is the way they will appear in the publication.
Figures & Tables
Figures Figures, including graphs and diagrams, must be professionally and clearly presented. If a figure is not easy to understand or does not appear to be of a suitable quality, the editor may ask to re-render or omit it.
All figures must be cited within the main text, in consecutive order using Arabic numerals (e.g. Figure 1, Figure 2, etc.).
Each figure must have an accompanying descriptive main title. This should clearly and concisely summarise the content and/or use of the figure image. A short additional figure legend is optional to offer a further description.
- Figure 1: 1685 map of London.
- Figure 1: 1685 map of London. Note the addition of St Paul’s Cathedral, absent from earlier maps.
Figure titles and legends should be placed within the text document, either after the paragraph of their first citation, or as a list after the references.
The source of the image should be included, along with any relevant copyright information and a statement of authorisation (if needed).
- Figure 1: Firemen try to free workers buried under piles of concrete and metal girders. Photo: Claude-Michel Masson. Reproduced with permission of the photographer.
If your figure file includes text then please present the font as Ariel, Helvetica, or Verdana. This will mean that it matches the typeset text.
NOTE: All figures must be uploaded separately as supplementary files during the submission process, if possible in colour and at a resolution of at least 300dpi . Each file should not be more than 20MB. Standard formats accepted are: JPG, TIFF, GIF, PNG, EPS. For line drawings, please provide the original vector file (e.g. .ai, or .eps). Tables Tables must be created using a word processor's table function, not tabbed text.
Tables should be included in the manuscript. The final layout will place the tables as close to their first citation as possible.
All tables must be cited within the main text, numbered with Arabic numerals in consecutive order (e.g. Table 1, Table 2, etc.). The table number should appear (in plain text) above the table.
Each table must have an accompanying descriptive title. This should clearly and concisely summarise the content and/or use of the table. The title (in italics and title case) must be placed immediately below the table number.
Notes or a short additional table legend is optional to offer a further description of the table. These must be placed underneath the table.
Tables should not include:
- Rotated text
- Colour to denote meaning (it will not display the same on all devices)
- Vertical or diagonal lines
- Multiple parts (e.g. ‘Table 1a’ and ‘Table 1b’). These should either be merged into one table, or separated into ‘Table 1’ and ‘Table 2’.
NOTE: If there are more columns than can fit on a single page, then the table will be placed horizontally on the page. If it still can't fit horizontally on a page, the table will be broken into two.
The journal permits audio and/or visual material to be included within submitted papers. These may be linked to a publication for download, or available to stream directly from the publication. If you would like to stream audio/visual elements within your submission, please contact the editorial team to ascertain the suitability of the material and specifications required for the submitted files
In the interests of open scholarship and the reproducibility of results, Journal of Cognition asks all authors to deposit the data relating to their publication in an open preservation repository, which is then described and linked to from manuscript. If there are legal or ethical reasons why this cannot be completed then the submission must justify their omission. The journal has no preference on which repository is used, as long as it is suitable to the data and provides long term preservation and a DOI along with the citation. This could be an open repository, such as Figshare , or Dataverse , or your institutional repository.
We ask that the version of data described in your paper, if applicable, is available in a repository that satisfies the criteria below:
- Allow the deposit of data under the correct licence
- Provide a unique, persistent identifier (e.g. a DOI) which references the deposited data
- Has a published backup policy and terms of service that do not allow deletion without warning
- Have a published preservation strategy that guarantees long term preservation
- Have a sound business/sustainability model
Details concerning the summary and availability of data (or lack of availability) must be added to the 'Data Accessibility Statement' section of the submission, which should be placed prior to the reference list. This should include the DOI linking to the repository
If you would like more information on this subject, please contact us .
In-text citations Every use of information from other sources must be cited in the text so that it is clear that external material has been used.
If the author is already mentioned in the main text then the year should follow the name within parenthesis.
- Both Jones (2013) and Brown (2010) showed that …
If the author name is not mentioned in the main text then the surname and year should be inserted, in parenthesis, after the relevant text. Multiple citations should be separated by semi-colon and follow alphabetical order.
- The statistics clearly show this to be untrue (Brown 2010; Jones 2013).
If three or fewer authors are cited from the same citation then all should be listed. If four or more authors are part of the citation then ‘et al.’ should follow the first author name.
- (Jones, Smith & Brown 2008)
- (Jones et al. 2008)
If citations are used from the same author and the same year, then a lowercase letter, starting from ‘a’, should be placed after the year.
- (Jones 2013a; Jones 2013b)
If specific pages are being cited then the page number should follow the year, after a colon.
- (Brown 2004: 65; Jones 2013: 143)
For publications authored and published by organisations, use the short form of the organisation’s name or its acronym in lieu of the full name.
- (ICRC 2000) NOT (International Committee of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies 2000)
Please do not include URLs in parenthetical citations, but rather cite the author or page title and include all details, including the URL, in the reference list.
Reference list All citations must be listed at the end of the text file, in alphabetical order of authors’ surnames.
All reading materials should be included in ‘References’ – works which have not been cited within the main text, but which the author wishes to share with the reader, must be cited as additional information in endnotes explaining the relevance of the work. This will ensure that all works within the reference list are cited within the text.
NOTE: If multiple works by the same author are being listed, please re-type the author’s name out for each entry, rather than using a long dash.
NOTE: DOIs should be included for all reference entries, where possible.
This journal uses the APA system – see below for examples of how to format:
Author, A. A. (year). Title of work. Location: Publisher. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/xx.xxxxxxxx
Leaver, B. L., Ehrman, M., & Shekhtman, B. (2005). Achieving success in second language acquisition. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511610431
J acobs, G. M., & Hall, S. (2002). Implementing cooperative learning. In J. C. Richards & W. A. Renandya (Eds.), Methodology in language teaching: An anthology of current practice (pp. 52-58). DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511667190.009
- Journal articles:
Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (year). Article title. Journal Title, volume number (issue number), page numbers. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/xx.xxxxxxxx
Radford, M. (2001). Aesthetic and religious awareness among pupils: Similarities and differences. British Journal of Music Education, 18 (2), 151-159. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/s0265051701000249
NOTE: Please include DOIs for all journal articles where possible.
- Newspaper articles (online):
Author, A. (year, date). Article title. Newspaper . Retrieved from www.URL
McMahon, S. (2010, July 19). Fund new Victorian era. Herald Sun . Retrieved from http://www.heraldsun.com.au/
- Newspaper articles (print):
Author, A. (year, date). Article title. Newspaper . pp. page number
Parker, K. (2008, December 3). Plea for languages. Koori Mail , pp. 19-20
- Conference papers:
Author, A. (year, month). Title . Paper presented at Conference title, Location, Country.
Liu, C., Wu, D., Fan, J., & Nauta, M. M. (2008, November). Does job complexity predict job strains? Paper presented at the 8th Biannual Conference of the European Academy of Occupational Health Psychology, Valencia, Spain.
- Organisational publications/Grey literature:
Organisation. (year). Title. Series/publication number. Retrieved from (if online)
World Bank. (2008). Textbooks and school library provision in secondary education in Sub-Saharan Africa (World Bank Working Paper No. 126. Africa Human Development Series). Retrieved from EBL database.
- Theses and dissertations:
Author, A. A. (year). Thesis title (Doctoral dissertation, Institution, location). DOI: http://dx.doi.org/xx.xxxxxxxx
Murray, B. P. (2008). Prior knowledge, two teaching approaches for metacognition: Main idea and summarization strategies in reading (Doctoral dissertation, Fordham University, New York)
- Webpages / PDFs:
Author, A. A. (year). Title of work . Retrieved month day, year, from source.
Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. (2011). Australia's health 2004 . Retrieved from http://www.aihw.gov.au/publications/index.cfm/title/10014
As part of the submission process, authors are required to check off their submission's compliance with all of the following items, and submissions may be returned to authors that do not adhere to these guidelines.
- The submission has not been previously published, nor is it before another journal for consideration (or an explanation has been provided in Comments to the Editor).
- Any third-party-owned materials used have been identified with appropriate credit lines, and permission obtained from the copyright holder for all formats of the journal.
- All authors qualify as authors, as per the authorship guidelines , and have given permission to be listed on the submitted paper.
- The text adheres to the stylistic and bibliographic requirements outlined in the Author Guidelines , which is found in About the Journal. The author acknowledges that they are responsible for blinding their files, should they wish to pursue a blind peer review process.
- Tables are all cited in the main text and are included within the text document.
- Figures are all cited in the main text and are uploaded as supplementary files. Figures/images have a resolution of at least 150dpi (300dpi or above preferred). The files are in one of the following formats: JPG, TIFF, GIF, PNG, EPS (to maximise quality, the original source file is preferred).
- Links have been provided to publicly available data, or it has been indicated in the acknowledgements how the data might be obtained. If the data cannot be shared, justification has been stated in the acknowledgements
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access ).
Submitting to the journal implicitly confirms that all named authors and rights holders have agreed to the above terms of publication. It is the submitting author's responsibility to ensure all authors and relevant institutional bodies have given their agreement at the point of submission.
Note: some institutions require authors to seek written approval in relation to the terms of publication. Should this be required, authors can request a separate licence agreement document from the editorial team (e.g. authors who are Crown employees).
The European Society for Cognitive Psychology (ESCoP) is committed to ensuring that professional cognition research is accessible to the public. To make this possible, we need to ask an Article Processing Fee (APC) from authors. The regular APC is €1150 per published article , although this may be reduced or waived, as below. There are no submission charges; APCs are only raised in case of publication.
The Journal of Cognition differs from many other open-access journals in that it is run by an academic society, not by a private publisher. Any surplus income generated through the APC is used entirely for scientific purposes. Some of the APC serves to cover the cost for the services needed to create a professional product, with the journal's publisher receiving €600 per publication. This ensures the availability of editorial support, professional typesetting services, continuous archiving & indexing of published articles, DOI management and assistance in promoting the research so that its impact is maximized. ESCoP uses the remainder for advancing cognitive psychology. This includes ensuring the quality of the contents of the Journal of Cognition by securing an expert editorial team to handle the peer review process and covering APCs for certain kinds of articles (e.g., invited content, Special Research Themes, Commentaries, etc.), as well as sponsoring workshops and summer schools.
Reduced APCs From 2019, corresponding authors who have completed a peer review for the Journal of Cognition within the 12 months before they submit their article or who are affiliated with the same institution as one of our editorial board members shall receive a discount of €150. Corresponding authors who are associate or full members of ESCoP receive a discount of €150. These discounts may be combined (i.e., corresponding authors who qualify for the reviewer discount and are current members pay only €850).
One way we acknowledge the efforts and commitment of editorial board members is by extending their €150 discount to all of their institutional colleagues. If your institution would like to nominate a qualified consulting editor, please contact the Editor-in-Chief ([email protected]). Editorial board members must be able to demonstrate expertise in cognition, experience with academic publishing and peer review, and a professional, constructive approach to delivering feedback. Editorial board members must commit to accepting review requests in their area of expertise and returning high-quality feedback promptly.
If you do not have funds available to pay the APC (eg because your institution/funder will not cover the fee) then we may be able to offer a discount or full waiver.
Please ensure that you contact the Journal Manager as early as possible, should you need to discuss waiver options or the APC in general.
Requests for waivers should be made upon submission of your manuscript to the journal.
- E-ISSN: 2514-4820
- Published by Ubiquity Press
- Terms and Conditions
Instructions for authors, manuscript submission, artwork and illustrations guidelines, supplementary information (si), research data policy and data availability statements, editing services, ethical responsibilities of authors, authorship principles, compliance with ethical standards, competing interests, after acceptance.
Open access publishing
- Mistakes to avoid during manuscript preparation
Submission of a manuscript implies: that the work described has not been published before; that it is not under consideration for publication anywhere else; that its publication has been approved by all co-authors, if any, as well as by the responsible authorities – tacitly or explicitly – at the institute where the work has been carried out. The publisher will not be held legally responsible should there be any claims for compensation.
Authors wishing to include figures, tables, or text passages that have already been published elsewhere are required to obtain permission from the copyright owner(s) for both the print and online format and to include evidence that such permission has been granted when submitting their papers. Any material received without such evidence will be assumed to originate from the authors.
Please follow the hyperlink “Submit manuscript” and upload all of your manuscript files following the instructions given on the screen.
Please ensure you provide all relevant editable source files at every submission and revision. Failing to submit a complete set of editable source files will result in your article not being considered for review. For your manuscript text please always submit in common word processing formats such as .docx or LaTeX.
Please make sure your title page contains the following information.
The title should be concise and informative.
- The name(s) of the author(s)
- The affiliation(s) of the author(s), i.e. institution, (department), city, (state), country
- A clear indication and an active e-mail address of the corresponding author
- If available, the 16-digit ORCID of the author(s)
If address information is provided with the affiliation(s) it will also be published.
For authors that are (temporarily) unaffiliated we will only capture their city and country of residence, not their e-mail address unless specifically requested.
Large Language Models (LLMs), such as ChatGPT , do not currently satisfy our authorship criteria . Notably an attribution of authorship carries with it accountability for the work, which cannot be effectively applied to LLMs. Use of an LLM should be properly documented in the Methods section (and if a Methods section is not available, in a suitable alternative part) of the manuscript.
Please provide an abstract of 150 to 250 words. The abstract should not contain any undefined abbreviations or unspecified references.
For life science journals only (when applicable)
- Trial registration number and date of registration for prospectively registered trials
- Trial registration number and date of registration, followed by “retrospectively registered”, for retrospectively registered trials
Please provide 4 to 6 keywords which can be used for indexing purposes.
Statements and Declarations
The following statements should be included under the heading "Statements and Declarations" for inclusion in the published paper. Please note that submissions that do not include relevant declarations will be returned as incomplete.
- Competing Interests: Authors are required to disclose financial or non-financial interests that are directly or indirectly related to the work submitted for publication. Please refer to “Competing Interests and Funding” below for more information on how to complete this section.
Please see the relevant sections in the submission guidelines for further information as well as various examples of wording. Please revise/customize the sample statements according to your own needs.
Manuscripts should be submitted in Word.
- Use a normal, plain font (e.g., 10-point Times Roman) for text.
- Use italics for emphasis.
- Use the automatic page numbering function to number the pages.
- Do not use field functions.
- Use tab stops or other commands for indents, not the space bar.
- Use the table function, not spreadsheets, to make tables.
- Use the equation editor or MathType for equations.
- Save your file in docx format (Word 2007 or higher) or doc format (older Word versions).
Manuscripts with mathematical content can also be submitted in LaTeX. We recommend using Springer Nature’s LaTeX template .
Please use the decimal system of headings with no more than three levels.
Abbreviations should be defined at first mention and used consistently thereafter.
Footnotes can be used to give additional information, which may include the citation of a reference included in the reference list. They should not consist solely of a reference citation, and they should never include the bibliographic details of a reference. They should also not contain any figures or tables.
Footnotes to the text are numbered consecutively; those to tables should be indicated by superscript lower-case letters (or asterisks for significance values and other statistical data). Footnotes to the title or the authors of the article are not given reference symbols.
Always use footnotes instead of endnotes.
Acknowledgments of people, grants, funds, etc. should be placed in a separate section on the title page. The names of funding organizations should be written in full.
Cite references in the text by name and year in parentheses. Some examples:
- Negotiation research spans many disciplines (Thompson 1990).
- This result was later contradicted by Becker and Seligman (1996).
- This effect has been widely studied (Abbott 1991; Barakat et al. 1995a, b; Kelso and Smith 1998; Medvec et al. 1999, 2000).
The list of references should only include works that are cited in the text and that have been published or accepted for publication. Personal communications and unpublished works should only be mentioned in the text.
Reference list entries should be alphabetized by the last names of the first author of each work. Please alphabetize according to the following rules: 1) For one author, by name of author, then chronologically; 2) For two authors, by name of author, then name of coauthor, then chronologically; 3) For more than two authors, by name of first author, then chronologically.
If available, please always include DOIs as full DOI links in your reference list (e.g. “https://doi.org/abc”).
Gamelin FX, Baquet G, Berthoin S, Thevenet D, Nourry C, Nottin S, Bosquet L (2009) Effect of high intensity intermittent training on heart rate variability in prepubescent children. Eur J Appl Physiol 105:731-738. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-008-0955-8
Ideally, the names of all authors should be provided, but the usage of “et al” in long author lists will also be accepted:
Smith J, Jones M Jr, Houghton L et al (1999) Future of health insurance. N Engl J Med 965:325–329
Slifka MK, Whitton JL (2000) Clinical implications of dysregulated cytokine production. J Mol Med. https://doi.org/10.1007/s001090000086
South J, Blass B (2001) The future of modern genomics. Blackwell, London
Brown B, Aaron M (2001) The politics of nature. In: Smith J (ed) The rise of modern genomics, 3rd edn. Wiley, New York, pp 230-257
Cartwright J (2007) Big stars have weather too. IOP Publishing PhysicsWeb. http://physicsweb.org/articles/news/11/6/16/1. Accessed 26 June 2007
Trent JW (1975) Experimental acute renal failure. Dissertation, University of California
Always use the standard abbreviation of a journal’s name according to the ISSN List of Title Word Abbreviations, see
If you are unsure, please use the full journal title.
- All tables are to be numbered using Arabic numerals.
- Tables should always be cited in text in consecutive numerical order.
- For each table, please supply a table caption (title) explaining the components of the table.
- Identify any previously published material by giving the original source in the form of a reference at the end of the table caption.
- Footnotes to tables should be indicated by superscript lower-case letters (or asterisks for significance values and other statistical data) and included beneath the table body.
Electronic Figure Submission
- Supply all figures electronically.
- Indicate what graphics program was used to create the artwork.
- For vector graphics, the preferred format is EPS; for halftones, please use TIFF format. MSOffice files are also acceptable.
- Vector graphics containing fonts must have the fonts embedded in the files.
- Name your figure files with "Fig" and the figure number, e.g., Fig1.eps.
- Definition: Black and white graphic with no shading.
- Do not use faint lines and/or lettering and check that all lines and lettering within the figures are legible at final size.
- All lines should be at least 0.1 mm (0.3 pt) wide.
- Scanned line drawings and line drawings in bitmap format should have a minimum resolution of 1200 dpi.
- Definition: Photographs, drawings, or paintings with fine shading, etc.
- If any magnification is used in the photographs, indicate this by using scale bars within the figures themselves.
- Halftones should have a minimum resolution of 300 dpi.
- Definition: a combination of halftone and line art, e.g., halftones containing line drawing, extensive lettering, color diagrams, etc.
- Combination artwork should have a minimum resolution of 600 dpi.
- Color art is free of charge for online publication.
- If black and white will be shown in the print version, make sure that the main information will still be visible. Many colors are not distinguishable from one another when converted to black and white. A simple way to check this is to make a xerographic copy to see if the necessary distinctions between the different colors are still apparent.
- If the figures will be printed in black and white, do not refer to color in the captions.
- Color illustrations should be submitted as RGB (8 bits per channel).
- To add lettering, it is best to use Helvetica or Arial (sans serif fonts).
- Keep lettering consistently sized throughout your final-sized artwork, usually about 2–3 mm (8–12 pt).
- Variance of type size within an illustration should be minimal, e.g., do not use 8-pt type on an axis and 20-pt type for the axis label.
- Avoid effects such as shading, outline letters, etc.
- Do not include titles or captions within your illustrations.
- All figures are to be numbered using Arabic numerals.
- Figures should always be cited in text in consecutive numerical order.
- Figure parts should be denoted by lowercase letters (a, b, c, etc.).
- If an appendix appears in your article and it contains one or more figures, continue the consecutive numbering of the main text. Do not number the appendix figures,"A1, A2, A3, etc." Figures in online appendices [Supplementary Information (SI)] should, however, be numbered separately.
- Each figure should have a concise caption describing accurately what the figure depicts. Include the captions in the text file of the manuscript, not in the figure file.
- Figure captions begin with the term Fig. in bold type, followed by the figure number, also in bold type.
- No punctuation is to be included after the number, nor is any punctuation to be placed at the end of the caption.
- Identify all elements found in the figure in the figure caption; and use boxes, circles, etc., as coordinate points in graphs.
- Identify previously published material by giving the original source in the form of a reference citation at the end of the figure caption.
Figure Placement and Size
- Figures should be submitted within the body of the text. Only if the file size of the manuscript causes problems in uploading it, the large figures should be submitted separately from the text.
- When preparing your figures, size figures to fit in the column width.
- For large-sized journals the figures should be 84 mm (for double-column text areas), or 174 mm (for single-column text areas) wide and not higher than 234 mm.
- For small-sized journals, the figures should be 119 mm wide and not higher than 195 mm.
If you include figures that have already been published elsewhere, you must obtain permission from the copyright owner(s) for both the print and online format. Please be aware that some publishers do not grant electronic rights for free and that Springer will not be able to refund any costs that may have occurred to receive these permissions. In such cases, material from other sources should be used.
In order to give people of all abilities and disabilities access to the content of your figures, please make sure that
- All figures have descriptive captions (blind users could then use a text-to-speech software or a text-to-Braille hardware)
- Patterns are used instead of or in addition to colors for conveying information (colorblind users would then be able to distinguish the visual elements)
- Any figure lettering has a contrast ratio of at least 4.5:1
Springer accepts electronic multimedia files (animations, movies, audio, etc.) and other supplementary files to be published online along with an article or a book chapter. This feature can add dimension to the author's article, as certain information cannot be printed or is more convenient in electronic form.
Before submitting research datasets as Supplementary Information, authors should read the journal’s Research data policy. We encourage research data to be archived in data repositories wherever possible.
- Supply all supplementary material in standard file formats.
- Please include in each file the following information: article title, journal name, author names; affiliation and e-mail address of the corresponding author.
- To accommodate user downloads, please keep in mind that larger-sized files may require very long download times and that some users may experience other problems during downloading.
- High resolution (streamable quality) videos can be submitted up to a maximum of 25GB; low resolution videos should not be larger than 5GB.
Audio, Video, and Animations
- Aspect ratio: 16:9 or 4:3
- Maximum file size: 25 GB for high resolution files; 5 GB for low resolution files
- Minimum video duration: 1 sec
- Supported file formats: avi, wmv, mp4, mov, m2p, mp2, mpg, mpeg, flv, mxf, mts, m4v, 3gp
Text and Presentations
- Submit your material in PDF format; .doc or .ppt files are not suitable for long-term viability.
- A collection of figures may also be combined in a PDF file.
- Spreadsheets should be submitted as .csv or .xlsx files (MS Excel).
- Specialized format such as .pdb (chemical), .wrl (VRML), .nb (Mathematica notebook), and .tex can also be supplied.
Collecting Multiple Files
- It is possible to collect multiple files in a .zip or .gz file.
- If supplying any supplementary material, the text must make specific mention of the material as a citation, similar to that of figures and tables.
- Refer to the supplementary files as “Online Resource”, e.g., "... as shown in the animation (Online Resource 3)", “... additional data are given in Online Resource 4”.
- Name the files consecutively, e.g. “ESM_3.mpg”, “ESM_4.pdf”.
- For each supplementary material, please supply a concise caption describing the content of the file.
Processing of supplementary files
- Supplementary Information (SI) will be published as received from the author without any conversion, editing, or reformatting.
In order to give people of all abilities and disabilities access to the content of your supplementary files, please make sure that
- The manuscript contains a descriptive caption for each supplementary material
- Video files do not contain anything that flashes more than three times per second (so that users prone to seizures caused by such effects are not put at risk)
This journal operates a type 3 research data policy . A submission to the journal implies that materials described in the manuscript, including all relevant raw data, will be freely available to any researcher wishing to use them for non-commercial purposes, without breaching participant confidentiality.
All original research must include a data availability statement. Data availability statements should include information on where data supporting the results reported in the article can be found, if applicable. Statements should include, where applicable, hyperlinks to publicly archived datasets analysed or generated during the study. For the purposes of the data availability statement, “data” is defined as the minimal dataset that would be necessary to interpret, replicate and build upon the findings reported in the article. When it is not possible to share research data publicly, for instance when individual privacy could be compromised, data availability should still be stated in the manuscript along with any conditions for access. Data availability statements can take one of the following forms (or a combination of more than one if required for multiple datasets):
1. The datasets generated during and/or analysed during the current study are available in the [NAME] repository, [PERSISTENT WEB LINK TO DATASETS]
2. The datasets generated during and/or analysed during the current study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.
3. All data generated or analysed during this study are included in this published article [and its supplementary information files].
4. The datasets generated during and/or analysed during the current study are not publicly available due [REASON(S) WHY DATA ARE NOT PUBLIC] but are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.].
5. Data sharing not applicable to this article as no datasets were generated or analysed during the current study.
6. The data that support the findings of this study are available from [THIRD PARTY NAME] but restrictions apply to the availability of these data, which were used under licence for the current study, and so are not publicly available. Data are however available from the authors upon reasonable request and with permission of [THIRD PARTY NAME].
More templates for data availability statements, including examples of openly available and restricted access datasets, are available here:
Data availability statements
This journal strongly encourages that all datasets on which the conclusions of the paper rely are available to readers. We encourage authors to ensure that their datasets are either deposited in publicly available repositories (where available and appropriate) or presented in the main manuscript or additional supporting files whenever possible. Please see Springer Nature’s information on recommended repositories.
List of Repositories
General repositories - for all types of research data - such as figshare and Dryad may be used where appropriate.
The journal also requires that authors cite any publicly available data on which the conclusions of the paper rely. Data citations should include a persistent identifier (such as a DOI), should be included in the reference list using the minimum information recommended by DataCite, and follow journal style. Dataset identifiers including DOIs should be expressed as full URLs.
Research data and peer review
Peer reviewers are encouraged to check the manuscript’s Data availability statement, where applicable. They should consider if the authors have complied with the journal’s policy on the availability of research data, and whether reasonable effort has been made to make the data that support the findings of the study available for replication or reuse by other researchers. Peer reviewers are entitled to request access to underlying data (and code) when needed for them to perform their evaluation of a manuscript.
If the journal that you’re submitting to uses double-blind peer review and you are providing reviewers with access to your data (for example via a repository link, supplementary information or data on request), it is strongly suggested that the authorship in the data is also blinded. There are data repositories that can assist with this and/or will create a link to mask the authorship of your data.
Authors who need help understanding our data sharing policies, help finding a suitable data repository, or help organising and sharing research data can access our Author Support portal for additional guidance.
For more information:
How can you help improve your manuscript for publication?
Presenting your work in a well-structured manuscript and in well-written English gives it its best chance for editors and reviewers to understand it and evaluate it fairly. Many researchers find that getting some independent support helps them present their results in the best possible light. The experts at Springer Nature Author Services can help you with manuscript preparation—including English language editing, developmental comments, manuscript formatting, figure preparation, translation , and more.
Get started and save 15%
You can also use our free Grammar Check tool for an evaluation of your work.
Please note that using these tools, or any other service, is not a requirement for publication, nor does it imply or guarantee that editors will accept the article, or even select it for peer review.
如果在结构精巧的稿件中用精心组织的英语展示您的作品，就能最大限度地让编辑和审稿人理解并公正评估您的作品。许多研究人员发现，获得一些独立支持有助于他们以尽可能美好的方式展示他们的成果。Springer Nature Author Services 的专家可帮助您准备稿件，具体包括 润色英语表述、添加有见地的注释、为稿件排版、设计图表、翻译 等。
开始使用即可节省 15% 的费用
您还可以使用我们的 免费语法检查工具 来评估您的作品。
内容が適切に組み立てられ、質の高い英語で書かれた論文を投稿すれば、編集者や査読者が論文を理解し、公正に評価するための最善の機会となります。多くの研究者は、個別のサポートを受けることで、研究結果を可能な限り最高の形で発表できると思っています。Springer Nature Author Servicesのエキスパートが、 英文の編集、建設的な提言、論文の書式、図の調整、翻訳 など、論文の作成をサポートいたします。
原稿の評価に、無料 の文法チェック ツールもご利用いただけます。
게재를 위해 원고를 개선하려면 어떻게 해야 할까요?
여러분의 작품을 체계적인 원고로 발표하는 것은 편집자와 심사자가 여러분의 연구를 이해하고 공정하게 평가할 수 있는 최선의 기회를 제공합니다. 많은 연구자들은 어느 정도 독립적인 지원을 받는 것이 가능한 한 최선의 방법으로 자신의 결과를 발표하는 데 도움이 된다고 합니다. Springer Nature Author Services 전문가들은 영어 편집, 발전적인 논평, 원고 서식 지정, 그림 준비, 번역 등과 같은 원고 준비를 도와드릴 수 있습니다.
지금 시작하면 15% 할인됩니다.
또한 당사의 무료 문법 검사 도구를 사용하여 여러분의 연구를 평가할 수 있습니다.
이러한 도구 또는 기타 서비스를 사용하는 것은 게재를 위한 필수 요구사항이 아니며, 편집자가 해당 논문을 수락하거나 피어 리뷰에 해당 논문을 선택한다는 것을 암시하거나 보장하지는 않습니다.
This journal is committed to upholding the integrity of the scientific record. As a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics ( COPE ) the journal will follow the COPE guidelines on how to deal with potential acts of misconduct.
Authors should refrain from misrepresenting research results which could damage the trust in the journal, the professionalism of scientific authorship, and ultimately the entire scientific endeavour. Maintaining integrity of the research and its presentation is helped by following the rules of good scientific practice, which include*:
- The manuscript should not be submitted to more than one journal for simultaneous consideration.
- The submitted work should be original and should not have been published elsewhere in any form or language (partially or in full), unless the new work concerns an expansion of previous work. (Please provide transparency on the re-use of material to avoid the concerns about text-recycling (‘self-plagiarism’).
- A single study should not be split up into several parts to increase the quantity of submissions and submitted to various journals or to one journal over time (i.e. ‘salami-slicing/publishing’).
- Concurrent or secondary publication is sometimes justifiable, provided certain conditions are met. Examples include: translations or a manuscript that is intended for a different group of readers.
- Results should be presented clearly, honestly, and without fabrication, falsification or inappropriate data manipulation (including image based manipulation). Authors should adhere to discipline-specific rules for acquiring, selecting and processing data.
- No data, text, or theories by others are presented as if they were the author’s own (‘plagiarism’). Proper acknowledgements to other works must be given (this includes material that is closely copied (near verbatim), summarized and/or paraphrased), quotation marks (to indicate words taken from another source) are used for verbatim copying of material, and permissions secured for material that is copyrighted.
Important note: the journal may use software to screen for plagiarism.
- Authors should make sure they have permissions for the use of software, questionnaires/(web) surveys and scales in their studies (if appropriate).
- Research articles and non-research articles (e.g. Opinion, Review, and Commentary articles) must cite appropriate and relevant literature in support of the claims made. Excessive and inappropriate self-citation or coordinated efforts among several authors to collectively self-cite is strongly discouraged.
- Authors should avoid untrue statements about an entity (who can be an individual person or a company) or descriptions of their behavior or actions that could potentially be seen as personal attacks or allegations about that person.
- Research that may be misapplied to pose a threat to public health or national security should be clearly identified in the manuscript (e.g. dual use of research). Examples include creation of harmful consequences of biological agents or toxins, disruption of immunity of vaccines, unusual hazards in the use of chemicals, weaponization of research/technology (amongst others).
- Authors are strongly advised to ensure the author group, the Corresponding Author, and the order of authors are all correct at submission. Adding and/or deleting authors during the revision stages is generally not permitted, but in some cases may be warranted. Reasons for changes in authorship should be explained in detail. Please note that changes to authorship cannot be made after acceptance of a manuscript.
*All of the above are guidelines and authors need to make sure to respect third parties rights such as copyright and/or moral rights.
Upon request authors should be prepared to send relevant documentation or data in order to verify the validity of the results presented. This could be in the form of raw data, samples, records, etc. Sensitive information in the form of confidential or proprietary data is excluded.
If there is suspicion of misbehavior or alleged fraud the Journal and/or Publisher will carry out an investigation following COPE guidelines. If, after investigation, there are valid concerns, the author(s) concerned will be contacted under their given e-mail address and given an opportunity to address the issue. Depending on the situation, this may result in the Journal’s and/or Publisher’s implementation of the following measures, including, but not limited to:
- If the manuscript is still under consideration, it may be rejected and returned to the author.
- an erratum/correction may be placed with the article
- an expression of concern may be placed with the article
- or in severe cases retraction of the article may occur.
The reason will be given in the published erratum/correction, expression of concern or retraction note. Please note that retraction means that the article is maintained on the platform , watermarked “retracted” and the explanation for the retraction is provided in a note linked to the watermarked article.
- The author’s institution may be informed
- A notice of suspected transgression of ethical standards in the peer review system may be included as part of the author’s and article’s bibliographic record.
Authors have an obligation to correct mistakes once they discover a significant error or inaccuracy in their published article. The author(s) is/are requested to contact the journal and explain in what sense the error is impacting the article. A decision on how to correct the literature will depend on the nature of the error. This may be a correction or retraction. The retraction note should provide transparency which parts of the article are impacted by the error.
Suggesting / excluding reviewers
Authors are welcome to suggest suitable reviewers and/or request the exclusion of certain individuals when they submit their manuscripts. When suggesting reviewers, authors should make sure they are totally independent and not connected to the work in any way. It is strongly recommended to suggest a mix of reviewers from different countries and different institutions. When suggesting reviewers, the Corresponding Author must provide an institutional email address for each suggested reviewer, or, if this is not possible to include other means of verifying the identity such as a link to a personal homepage, a link to the publication record or a researcher or author ID in the submission letter. Please note that the Journal may not use the suggestions, but suggestions are appreciated and may help facilitate the peer review process.
These guidelines describe authorship principles and good authorship practices to which prospective authors should adhere to.
The Journal and Publisher assume all authors agreed with the content and that all gave explicit consent to submit and that they obtained consent from the responsible authorities at the institute/organization where the work has been carried out, before the work is submitted.
The Publisher does not prescribe the kinds of contributions that warrant authorship. It is recommended that authors adhere to the guidelines for authorship that are applicable in their specific research field. In absence of specific guidelines it is recommended to adhere to the following guidelines*:
All authors whose names appear on the submission
1) made substantial contributions to the conception or design of the work; or the acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data; or the creation of new software used in the work;
2) drafted the work or revised it critically for important intellectual content;
3) approved the version to be published; and
4) agree to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved.
* Based on/adapted from:
ICMJE, Defining the Role of Authors and Contributors,
Transparency in authors’ contributions and responsibilities to promote integrity in scientific publication, McNutt at all, PNAS February 27, 2018
Disclosures and declarations
All authors are requested to include information regarding sources of funding, financial or non-financial interests, study-specific approval by the appropriate ethics committee for research involving humans and/or animals, informed consent if the research involved human participants, and a statement on welfare of animals if the research involved animals (as appropriate).
The decision whether such information should be included is not only dependent on the scope of the journal, but also the scope of the article. Work submitted for publication may have implications for public health or general welfare and in those cases it is the responsibility of all authors to include the appropriate disclosures and declarations.
All authors are requested to make sure that all data and materials as well as software application or custom code support their published claims and comply with field standards. Please note that journals may have individual policies on (sharing) research data in concordance with disciplinary norms and expectations.
Role of the Corresponding Author
One author is assigned as Corresponding Author and acts on behalf of all co-authors and ensures that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately addressed.
The Corresponding Author is responsible for the following requirements:
- ensuring that all listed authors have approved the manuscript before submission, including the names and order of authors;
- managing all communication between the Journal and all co-authors, before and after publication;*
- providing transparency on re-use of material and mention any unpublished material (for example manuscripts in press) included in the manuscript in a cover letter to the Editor;
- making sure disclosures, declarations and transparency on data statements from all authors are included in the manuscript as appropriate (see above).
* The requirement of managing all communication between the journal and all co-authors during submission and proofing may be delegated to a Contact or Submitting Author. In this case please make sure the Corresponding Author is clearly indicated in the manuscript.
In absence of specific instructions and in research fields where it is possible to describe discrete efforts, the Publisher recommends authors to include contribution statements in the work that specifies the contribution of every author in order to promote transparency. These contributions should be listed at the separate title page.
Examples of such statement(s) are shown below:
• Free text:
All authors contributed to the study conception and design. Material preparation, data collection and analysis were performed by [full name], [full name] and [full name]. The first draft of the manuscript was written by [full name] and all authors commented on previous versions of the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
Example: CRediT taxonomy:
• Conceptualization: [full name], …; Methodology: [full name], …; Formal analysis and investigation: [full name], …; Writing - original draft preparation: [full name, …]; Writing - review and editing: [full name], …; Funding acquisition: [full name], …; Resources: [full name], …; Supervision: [full name],….
For review articles where discrete statements are less applicable a statement should be included who had the idea for the article, who performed the literature search and data analysis, and who drafted and/or critically revised the work.
For articles that are based primarily on the student’s dissertation or thesis , it is recommended that the student is usually listed as principal author:
A Graduate Student’s Guide to Determining Authorship Credit and Authorship Order, APA Science Student Council 2006
The primary affiliation for each author should be the institution where the majority of their work was done. If an author has subsequently moved, the current address may additionally be stated. Addresses will not be updated or changed after publication of the article.
Changes to authorship
Authors are strongly advised to ensure the correct author group, the Corresponding Author, and the order of authors at submission. Changes of authorship by adding or deleting authors, and/or changes in Corresponding Author, and/or changes in the sequence of authors are not accepted after acceptance of a manuscript.
- Please note that author names will be published exactly as they appear on the accepted submission!
Please make sure that the names of all authors are present and correctly spelled, and that addresses and affiliations are current.
Adding and/or deleting authors at revision stage are generally not permitted, but in some cases it may be warranted. Reasons for these changes in authorship should be explained. Approval of the change during revision is at the discretion of the Editor-in-Chief. Please note that journals may have individual policies on adding and/or deleting authors during revision stage.
Authors are recommended to use their ORCID ID when submitting an article for consideration or acquire an ORCID ID via the submission process.
Deceased or incapacitated authors
For cases in which a co-author dies or is incapacitated during the writing, submission, or peer-review process, and the co-authors feel it is appropriate to include the author, co-authors should obtain approval from a (legal) representative which could be a direct relative.
Authorship issues or disputes
In the case of an authorship dispute during peer review or after acceptance and publication, the Journal will not be in a position to investigate or adjudicate. Authors will be asked to resolve the dispute themselves. If they are unable the Journal reserves the right to withdraw a manuscript from the editorial process or in case of a published paper raise the issue with the authors’ institution(s) and abide by its guidelines.
Authors should treat all communication with the Journal as confidential which includes correspondence with direct representatives from the Journal such as Editors-in-Chief and/or Handling Editors and reviewers’ reports unless explicit consent has been received to share information.
To ensure objectivity and transparency in research and to ensure that accepted principles of ethical and professional conduct have been followed, authors should include information regarding sources of funding, potential conflicts of interest (financial or non-financial), informed consent if the research involved human participants, and a statement on welfare of animals if the research involved animals.
Authors should include the following statements (if applicable) in a separate section entitled “Compliance with Ethical Standards” when submitting a paper:
- Disclosure of potential conflicts of interest
- Research involving Human Participants and/or Animals
- Informed consent
Please note that standards could vary slightly per journal dependent on their peer review policies (i.e. single or double blind peer review) as well as per journal subject discipline. Before submitting your article check the instructions following this section carefully.
The corresponding author should be prepared to collect documentation of compliance with ethical standards and send if requested during peer review or after publication.
The Editors reserve the right to reject manuscripts that do not comply with the above-mentioned guidelines. The author will be held responsible for false statements or failure to fulfill the above-mentioned guidelines.
Authors are requested to disclose interests that are directly or indirectly related to the work submitted for publication. Interests within the last 3 years of beginning the work (conducting the research and preparing the work for submission) should be reported. Interests outside the 3-year time frame must be disclosed if they could reasonably be perceived as influencing the submitted work. Disclosure of interests provides a complete and transparent process and helps readers form their own judgments of potential bias. This is not meant to imply that a financial relationship with an organization that sponsored the research or compensation received for consultancy work is inappropriate.
Editorial Board Members and Editors are required to declare any competing interests and may be excluded from the peer review process if a competing interest exists. In addition, they should exclude themselves from handling manuscripts in cases where there is a competing interest. This may include – but is not limited to – having previously published with one or more of the authors, and sharing the same institution as one or more of the authors. Where an Editor or Editorial Board Member is on the author list they must declare this in the competing interests section on the submitted manuscript. If they are an author or have any other competing interest regarding a specific manuscript, another Editor or member of the Editorial Board will be assigned to assume responsibility for overseeing peer review. These submissions are subject to the exact same review process as any other manuscript. Editorial Board Members are welcome to submit papers to the journal. These submissions are not given any priority over other manuscripts, and Editorial Board Member status has no bearing on editorial consideration.
Interests that should be considered and disclosed but are not limited to the following:
Funding: Research grants from funding agencies (please give the research funder and the grant number) and/or research support (including salaries, equipment, supplies, reimbursement for attending symposia, and other expenses) by organizations that may gain or lose financially through publication of this manuscript.
Employment: Recent (while engaged in the research project), present or anticipated employment by any organization that may gain or lose financially through publication of this manuscript. This includes multiple affiliations (if applicable).
Financial interests: Stocks or shares in companies (including holdings of spouse and/or children) that may gain or lose financially through publication of this manuscript; consultation fees or other forms of remuneration from organizations that may gain or lose financially; patents or patent applications whose value may be affected by publication of this manuscript.
It is difficult to specify a threshold at which a financial interest becomes significant, any such figure is necessarily arbitrary, so one possible practical guideline is the following: "Any undeclared financial interest that could embarrass the author were it to become publicly known after the work was published."
Non-financial interests: In addition, authors are requested to disclose interests that go beyond financial interests that could impart bias on the work submitted for publication such as professional interests, personal relationships or personal beliefs (amongst others). Examples include, but are not limited to: position on editorial board, advisory board or board of directors or other type of management relationships; writing and/or consulting for educational purposes; expert witness; mentoring relations; and so forth.
Primary research articles require a disclosure statement. Review articles present an expert synthesis of evidence and may be treated as an authoritative work on a subject. Review articles therefore require a disclosure statement.Other article types such as editorials, book reviews, comments (amongst others) may, dependent on their content, require a disclosure statement. If you are unclear whether your article type requires a disclosure statement, please contact the Editor-in-Chief.
Please note that, in addition to the above requirements, funding information (given that funding is a potential competing interest (as mentioned above)) needs to be disclosed upon submission of the manuscript in the peer review system. This information will automatically be added to the Record of CrossMark, however it is not added to the manuscript itself. Under ‘summary of requirements’ (see below) funding information should be included in the ‘ Declarations ’ section.
Summary of requirements
The above should be summarized in a statement and placed in a ‘Declarations’ section before the reference list under a heading of ‘Funding’ and/or ‘Competing interests’. Other declarations include Ethics approval, Consent, Data, Material and/or Code availability and Authors’ contribution statements.
Please see the various examples of wording below and revise/customize the sample statements according to your own needs.
When all authors have the same (or no) conflicts and/or funding it is sufficient to use one blanket statement.
Examples of statements to be used when funding has been received:
- Partial financial support was received from [...]
- The research leading to these results received funding from […] under Grant Agreement No[…].
- This study was funded by […]
- This work was supported by […] (Grant numbers […] and […]
Examples of statements to be used when there is no funding:
- The authors did not receive support from any organization for the submitted work.
- No funding was received to assist with the preparation of this manuscript.
- No funding was received for conducting this study.
- No funds, grants, or other support was received.
Examples of statements to be used when there are interests to declare:
Non-financial interests: Author C is an unpaid member of committee Z.
Non-financial interests: Author A is on the board of directors of Y and receives no compensation as member of the board of directors.
Non-financial interests: none.
Non-financial interests: Author D has served on advisory boards for Company M, Company N and Company O.
Examples of statements to be used when authors have nothing to declare:
- The authors have no relevant financial or non-financial interests to disclose.
- The authors have no competing interests to declare that are relevant to the content of this article.
- All authors certify that they have no affiliations with or involvement in any organization or entity with any financial interest or non-financial interest in the subject matter or materials discussed in this manuscript.
- The authors have no financial or proprietary interests in any material discussed in this article.
Authors are responsible for correctness of the statements provided in the manuscript. See also Authorship Principles. The Editor-in-Chief reserves the right to reject submissions that do not meet the guidelines described in this section.
Upon acceptance, your article will be exported to Production to undergo typesetting. Once typesetting is complete, you will receive a link asking you to confirm your affiliation, choose the publishing model for your article as well as arrange rights and payment of any associated publication cost.
Once you have completed this, your article will be processed and you will receive the proofs.
Article publishing agreement
Depending on the ownership of the journal and its policies, you will either grant the Publisher an exclusive licence to publish the article or will be asked to transfer copyright of the article to the Publisher.
Offprints can be ordered by the corresponding author.
Online publication of color illustrations is free of charge. For color in the print version, authors will be expected to make a contribution towards the extra costs.
The purpose of the proof is to check for typesetting or conversion errors and the completeness and accuracy of the text, tables and figures. Substantial changes in content, e.g., new results, corrected values, title and authorship, are not allowed without the approval of the Editor.
After online publication, further changes can only be made in the form of an Erratum, which will be hyperlinked to the article.
The article will be published online after receipt of the corrected proofs. This is the official first publication citable with the DOI. After release of the printed version, the paper can also be cited by issue and page numbers.
Open Choice allows you to publish open access in more than 1850 Springer Nature journals, making your research more visible and accessible immediately on publication.
Article processing charges (APCs) vary by journal – view the full list
- Increased researcher engagement: Open Choice enables access by anyone with an internet connection, immediately on publication.
It is easy to find funding to support open access – please see our funding and support pages for more information.
*) Within the first three years of publication. Springer Nature hybrid journal OA impact analysis, 2018.
Funding and Support pages
Copyright and license term – CC BY
Open Choice articles do not require transfer of copyright as the copyright remains with the author. In opting for open access, the author(s) agree to publish the article under the Creative Commons Attribution License.
Find more about the license agreement
To find out more about publishing your work Open Access in Cognition, Technology & Work , including information on fees, funding and licenses, visit our Open access publishing page .
Working on a manuscript.
Avoid the most common mistakes and prepare your manuscript for journal editors.
Supports open access, about the journal.
International Journal of Cognitive Science
Aims & Scope
Cognition is an international journal that publishes theoretical and experimental papers on the study of the mind. It covers a wide variety of subjects concerning all the different aspects of cognition, ranging from experimental studies of behavior and of the brain to formal analysis. Papers will …
Article Publishing Charge for open access
* List price excluding taxes. Discount may apply. For further details see open access options.
Ian dobbins, phd.
Washington University in St Louis, Department of Psychological & Brain Sciences, United States of America
Ori Friedman, PhD
University of Waterloo, Department of Psychology, Canada
Katrien Segaert, PhD
University of Birmingham, United Kingdom
University of California Davis, Department of Psychology, United States of America
Most downloaded, most popular, caregiver linguistic alignment to autistic and typically developing children: a natural language processing approach illuminates the interactive components of language development, the illusory truth effect leads to the spread of misinformation, learning progress mediates the link between cognitive effort and task engagement, visual explanations prioritize functional properties at the expense of visual fidelity, finding your voice: voice-specific effects in tagalog reveal the limits of word order priming, from outcome to process: a developmental shift in judgments of good reasoning, which processes dominate visual search: bottom-up feature contrast, top-down tuning or trial history, difficulty limits of visual mental imagery, more from cognition, announcements, meet the new editors-in-chief of cognition, special issues and article collections, special issue in honour of jacques mehler, cognition’s founding editor, social, motivational, and emotional influences on memory, the cognitive science of political thought, moral learning.
Copyright © 2023 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved
- < Back to search results
- Language and Cognition
- Journal information
- Author instructions
Language and Cognition
- Alert added. Go to My account > My alerts to manage your alert preferences. Add alert
- Submit your article
- Recommend to librarian
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.
You are leaving Cambridge Core and will be taken to this journal's article submission site.
- Add alert Add alert
- Journal home
- Registered Reports
- Call for Papers
- Special Issues
- FirstView articles
- Latest issue
- Editorial board
- Contact details
- Journal metrics
- Book reviews
- Abstracting and indexing
- Fees and pricing
- Preparing your materials
- Submitting your materials
- Publication process after acceptance
- Publishing agreement
- Post publication impact
- Review process
- Instructions for peer reviewers
- Reviewer benefits
- Open access options
- Publishing ethics
- Research transparency
- Rights and permissions
- Sponsorship and advertising
More information about preparing your materials for submission, submitting your materials and the publication process itself can be found in the relevant tabs under 'Author Instructions' (in the navigation panel on the left-hand side of this page).
- For 'Fees and Pricing' click here .
- For 'Preparing your materials' click here .
- For 'Submitting your materials' click here .
- For 'Publication process after acceptance' click here .
- For 'Publishing Agreement' click here .
- For 'Post publication impact' click here .
Articles for submission should be accompanied by a covering letter which summarizes, in no more than a short paragraph, the novel empirical and/or theoretical
Each file should not be more than 20MB. Standard formats accepted are: JPG, TIFF, GIF, PNG, EPS. For line drawings, please provide the original vector file (
Interests within the last 3 years of beginning the work (conducting the research and preparing the work for submission) should be reported. Interests outside
Please ensure you provide all relevant editable source files at every submission and revision. Failing to submit a complete set of editable source files will
Materials should describe work done and methods used in a clear and explicit manner (allowing reproduction of the methods by others). Cognition occasionally
Manuscript must be composed for 8-1/2" x 11" white paper, one side only, double-spaced, with wide margins, paginate consecutively starting with the title page.
The Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience only accepts online submissions. To submit a manuscript for review visit the JOCN online manuscript submission tool. There
Manuscript Preparation. Cognitive Science uses a web-based submission and double-anonymous review process, Editorial Manager. Authors should log onto the
Language and Cognition · For 'Fees and Pricing' click here. · For 'Preparing your materials' click here. · For 'Submitting your materials' click here. · For '
This letter should confirm adherence to the submission guidelines and discuss any special considerations relevant to the research or review process. Manuscripts