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Writing a Business Plan

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While it may be tempting to put off, creating a business plan is an essential part of starting your own business. Plans and proposals should be put in a clear format making it easy for potential investors to understand. Because every company has a different goal and product or service to offer, there are business plan templates readily available to help you get on the right track. Many of these templates can be adapted for any company. In general, a business plan writing guide will recommend that the following sections be incorporated into your plan.

Executive Summary

The executive summary is the first section that business plans open with, but is often the last section to actually be written as it’s the most difficult to write. The executive summary is a summary of the overall plan that highlights the key points and gives the reader an idea of what lies ahead in the document. It should include areas such as the business opportunity, target market, marketing and sales strategy, competition, the summary of the financial plan, staff members and a summary of how the plan will be implemented. This section needs to be extremely clear, concise and engaging as you don’t want the reader to push your hard work aside.

Company Description

The company description follows the executive summary and should cover all the details about the company itself. For example, if you are writing a business plan for an internet café, you would want to include the name of the company, where the café would be located, who the main team members involved are and why, how large the company is, who the target market for the internet cafe is, what type of business structure the café is, such as LLC, sole proprietorship, partnership, or corporation, what the internet café business mission and vision statements are, and what the business’s short-term objectives are.

Services and Products

This is the exciting part of the plan where you get to explain what new and improved services or products you are offering. On top of describing the product or service itself, include in the plan what is currently in the market in this area, what problems there are in this area and how your product is the solution. For example, in a business plan for a food truck, perhaps there are numerous other food trucks in the area, but they are all fast –food style and unhealthy so, you want to introduce fast food that serves only organic and fresh ingredients every day. This is where you can also list your price points and future products or services you anticipate.

Market Analysis

The market analysis section will take time to write and research as a lot of effort and research need to go into it. Here is where you have the opportunity to describe what trends are showing up, what the growth rate in this sector looks like, what the current size of this industry is and who your target audience is. A cleaning business plan, for example, may include how this sector has been growing by 10% every year due to an increase in large businesses being built in the city.

Organization and Management

Marketing and sales are the part of the business plan where you explain how you will attract and retain clients. How are you reaching your target customers and what incentives do you offer that will keep them coming back? For a dry cleaner business plan, perhaps if they refer customers, they will get 10% off their next visit. In addition, you may want to explain what needs to be done in order for the business to be profitable. This is a great way of showing that you are conscious about what clear steps need to be taken to make a business successful.

Financial Projections & Appendix

The financial business plan section can be a tricky one to write as it is based on projections. Usually what is included is the short-term projection, which is a year broken down by month and should include start-up permits, equipment, and licenses that are required. This is followed by a three-year projection broken down by year and many often write a five-year projection, but this does not need to be included in the business plan.

The appendix is the last section and contains all the supporting documents and/or required material. This often includes resumes of those involved in the company, letters of reference, product pictures and credit histories. Keep in mind that your business plan is always in development and should be adjusted regularly as your business grows and changes.


story writing year 1 planning

Your Guide to Writing a Business Plan

story writing year 1 planning

If you’re starting a new business, then you need an effective plan. Not only does this enable you to plan your company, but it also gives potential clients an insight into how your business works. A business plan is also vital if you want to attract investors or secure a loan from the bank. Drafting a business plan is a complex process, but it doesn’t have to be. This guide will ensure you create a definite plan to impress investors and clients. 

When creating your business plan, there are some essential elements you must include. The Executive Summary provides a description of your business, and what you hope to achieve. People usually write at least one page, but leave their Executive Summary until last.

You’ll also need to detail what your business offers and define your target audience. This makes it easier for people to see whether your company has a chance of succeeding. The opportunity section is also an excellent way for you to see what competitors offer and how you can create a USP to stand out from the competition. 

Appealing to Investors

Every business that wants growth and prosperity must ensure they promote themselves to potential investors. Business plans aren’t just about what the business is, but who is part of it too. Detail your current team members and explain what they bring to the company. Investors want to know they’re making a wise investment.

Your current finances and financial forecast are also essential aspects of your business plan. Look at your products, how much you’re selling them for and what kind of profit margin you expect to gain. It’s also vital you detail your outgoings and look at how various economic situations could affect your finances. 

Writing a Winning Executive Summary

There are problems in every market, and a successful business solves that problem. If you can show how you’ll be able to offer solutions in your business plan, you’ll appeal to investors. Choose your target audience based on research and ensure you show your research. There are many ways to conduct market research including defining SOMs, SAMs and TAMs. 

TAM stands for Total Available Market and comprises everyone you want your product to reach. Your Segmented Addressable Market (SAM) is a specific portion of the market you’ll target. This is important because it shows you’re able to direct your product at the right people and not just everyone. Your SOM (Share of the Market) is what you feel you’ll gain with your product.  

How to Determine Pricing

Pricing your product is one of the most challenging things you’ll have to do. There are many things to consider, such as how much it’s worth and making sure you don’t charge unrealistically. Many new businesses believe undercharging is the best way to go, but doing this can undermine your company’s authority and cause fewer people to be interested in investing.

Market-based pricing involves looking at your competitors and evaluating their prices. Which company has the most customers? How does their pricing match others? These are all vital aspects you should consider. Remember, customers expect quality and a fair price, so make sure you combine the two. 

Future Goals

Investors and banks want to know that you’ve considered what the future will hold for your company. When you write your business plan, be sure to take into account how you see the company growing, what you’ll do to ensure it thrives and that you understand the potential risks. Banks and investors want to know that you can build a business and are aware of the obstacles you’ll have to overcome.

Starting your own business doesn’t have to be difficult. If you ensure you produce a robust business plan, it can be an exciting process. Your business is part of your future, so start by outlining your goals and look forward to seeing results. 


story writing year 1 planning

What's Your Question?

How to Write a Lesson Plan

Prepare for class by writing clear lesson plans that are easy to read. Include details specific enough that a substitute teacher could come in and understand them. Once you’ve written the lesson plans, make a copy to have in case the original is misplaced and as a backup at home.

Plan your objectives for the lesson plan. Figure out the amount of time you’ll be teaching and break it down into segments. Make an outline, including an estimated amount of time for each section. Decide if you want all lecture lessons, part lecture and student involvement or an activity-based lesson. Lay out a week’s worth of plans to carry over any information from one day to the next. What you don’t complete on Monday can be finished on Tuesday.


Write an introduction for the lesson, giving an overview of what’s expected. Include a warm-up activity to get the students’ attention. A lesson plan free template is ideal for creating weekly lesson plans. Include the procedures you’ll use during the intro and the rest of the lesson. Highlight materials you’ll need and have them available ahead of time.


Considering the academic, social and personal needs of the students, write out the instruction plans, keeping sequencing in mind for flow. Incorporating various learning styles in the lesson plans can be an effective teaching method with a wide range of students and their abilities. Worksheets, question and answer sessions, group activities and individual assignments make use of various learning styles. Curriculum-based hands-on board games and art activities related to the lesson break up the study sessions.

Conclude the lesson by summarizing what you’ve discussed. Review the key points. In your lesson plan, mark notations in textbooks you’re using as a cross-reference. Leave space in the plan to go back over areas that were difficult for the students to understand. Tie in one lesson plan to the next one. Mark down if you plan to assign homework related to the lesson.

Practice scripting, especially if you’re new to teaching. Use that extra copy of the lesson plan to practice at home. This helps you gain confidence and ensures successful classroom instruction. By walking through the lesson plan, you’ll find areas that might need tweaking. After you’ve completed the lesson in the classroom, evaluate how it went. What parts worked and which ones need adjusting? Give yourself wiggle room in each of the lesson plans to make adjustments as needed.


story writing year 1 planning

A Step-by-Step Plan for Teaching Narrative Writing

July 29, 2018

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“Those who tell the stories rule the world.”  This proverb, attributed to the Hopi Indians, is one I wish I’d known a long time ago, because I would have used it when teaching my students the craft of storytelling. With a well-told story we can help a person see things in an entirely new way. We can forge new relationships and strengthen the ones we already have. We can change a law, inspire a movement, make people care fiercely about things they’d never given a passing thought.

But when we study storytelling with our students, we forget all that. Or at least I did. When my students asked why we read novels and stories, and why we wrote personal narratives and fiction, my defense was pretty lame: I probably said something about the importance of having a shared body of knowledge, or about the enjoyment of losing yourself in a book, or about the benefits of having writing skills in general.

I forgot to talk about the  power of story. I didn’t bother to tell them that the ability to tell a captivating story is one of the things that makes human beings extraordinary. It’s how we connect to each other. It’s something to celebrate, to study, to perfect. If we’re going to talk about how to teach students to write stories, we should start by thinking about why we tell stories at all . If we can pass that on to our students, then we will be going beyond a school assignment; we will be doing something transcendent.

Now. How do we get them to write those stories? I’m going to share the process I used for teaching narrative writing. I used this process with middle school students, but it would work with most age groups.

A Note About Form: Personal Narrative or Short Story?

When teaching narrative writing, many teachers separate personal narratives from short stories. In my own classroom, I tended to avoid having my students write short stories because personal narratives were more accessible. I could usually get students to write about something that really happened, while it was more challenging to get them to make something up from scratch.

In the “real” world of writers, though, the main thing that separates memoir from fiction is labeling: A writer might base a novel heavily on personal experiences, but write it all in third person and change the names of characters to protect the identities of people in real life. Another writer might create a short story in first person that reads like a personal narrative, but is entirely fictional. Just last weekend my husband and I watched the movie Lion and were glued to the screen the whole time, knowing it was based on a true story. James Frey’s book  A Million Little Pieces  sold millions of copies as a memoir but was later found to contain more than a little bit of fiction. Then there are unique books like Curtis Sittenfeld’s brilliant novel American Wife , based heavily on the early life of Laura Bush but written in first person, with fictional names and settings, and labeled as a work of fiction. The line between fact and fiction has always been really, really blurry, but the common thread running through all of it is good storytelling.

With that in mind, the process for teaching narrative writing can be exactly the same for writing personal narratives or short stories; it’s the same skill set. So if you think your students can handle the freedom, you might decide to let them choose personal narrative or fiction for a narrative writing assignment, or simply tell them that whether the story is true doesn’t matter, as long as they are telling a good story and they are not trying to pass off a fictional story as fact.

Here are some examples of what that kind of flexibility could allow:

If we aren’t too restrictive about what we call these pieces, and we talk about different possibilities with our students, we can end up with lots of interesting outcomes. Meanwhile, we’re still teaching students the craft of narrative writing.

A Note About Process: Write With Your Students

One of the most powerful techniques I used as a writing teacher was to do my students’ writing assignments with them. I would start my own draft at the same time as they did, composing “live” on the classroom projector, and doing a lot of thinking out loud so they could see all the decisions a writer has to make.

The most helpful parts for them to observe were the early drafting stage, where I just scratched out whatever came to me in messy, run-on sentences, and the revision stage, where I crossed things out, rearranged, and made tons of notes on my writing. I have seen over and over again how witnessing that process can really help to unlock a student’s understanding of how writing actually gets made.

A Narrative Writing Unit Plan

Before I get into these steps, I should note that there is no one right way to teach narrative writing, and plenty of accomplished teachers are doing it differently and getting great results. This just happens to be a process that has worked for me.

Step 1: Show Students That Stories Are Everywhere

Getting our students to tell stories should be easy. They hear and tell stories all the time. But when they actually have to put words on paper, they forget their storytelling abilities: They can’t think of a topic. They omit relevant details, but go on and on about irrelevant ones. Their dialogue is bland. They can’t figure out how to start. They can’t figure out how to end.

So the first step in getting good narrative writing from students is to help them see that they are already telling stories every day . They gather at lockers to talk about that thing that happened over the weekend. They sit at lunch and describe an argument they had with a sibling. Without even thinking about it, they begin sentences with “This one time…” and launch into stories about their earlier childhood experiences. Students are natural storytellers; learning how to do it well on paper is simply a matter of studying good models, then imitating what those writers do.

So start off the unit by getting students to tell their stories. In journal quick-writes, think-pair-shares, or by playing a game like Concentric Circles , prompt them to tell some of their own brief stories: A time they were embarrassed. A time they lost something. A time they didn’t get to do something they really wanted to do. By telling their own short anecdotes, they will grow more comfortable and confident in their storytelling abilities. They will also be generating a list of topic ideas. And by listening to the stories of their classmates, they will be adding onto that list and remembering more of their own stories.

And remember to tell some of your own. Besides being a good way to bond with students, sharing  your stories will help them see more possibilities for the ones they can tell.

Step 2: Study the Structure of a Story

Now that students have a good library of their own personal stories pulled into short-term memory, shift your focus to a more formal study of what a story looks like.

Use a diagram to show students a typical story arc like the one below. Then, using a simple story—like this Coca Cola commercial —fill out the story arc with the components from that story. Once students have seen this story mapped out, have them try it with another one, like a story you’ve read in class, a whole novel, or another short video.

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Step 3: Introduce the Assignment

Up to this point, students have been immersed in storytelling. Now give them specific instructions for what they are going to do. Share your assignment rubric so they understand the criteria that will be used to evaluate them; it should be ready and transparent right from the beginning of the unit. As always, I recommend using a single point rubric for this.

Step 4: Read Models

Once the parameters of the assignment have been explained, have students read at least one model story, a mentor text that exemplifies the qualities you’re looking for. This should be a story on a topic your students can kind of relate to, something they could see themselves writing. For my narrative writing unit (see the end of this post), I wrote a story called “Frog” about a 13-year-old girl who finally gets to stay home alone, then finds a frog in her house and gets completely freaked out, which basically ruins the fun she was planning for the night.

They will be reading this model as writers, looking at how the author shaped the text for a purpose, so that they can use those same strategies in their own writing. Have them look at your rubric and find places in the model that illustrate the qualities listed in the rubric. Then have them complete a story arc for the model so they can see the underlying structure.

Ideally, your students will have already read lots of different stories to look to as models. If that isn’t the case, this list of narrative texts recommended by Cult of Pedagogy followers on Twitter would be a good place to browse for titles that might be right for your students. Keep in mind that we have not read most of these stories, so be sure to read them first before adopting them for classroom use.

story writing year 1 planning

Click the image above to view the full list of narrative texts recommended by Cult of Pedagogy followers on Twitter. If you have a suggestion for the list, please email us through our contact page.

Step 5: Story Mapping

At this point, students will need to decide what they are going to write about. If they are stuck for a topic, have them just pick something they can write about, even if it’s not the most captivating story in the world. A skilled writer could tell a great story about deciding what to have for lunch. If they are using the skills of narrative writing, the topic isn’t as important as the execution.

Have students complete a basic story arc for their chosen topic using a diagram like the one below. This will help them make sure that they actually have a story to tell, with an identifiable problem, a sequence of events that build to a climax, and some kind of resolution, where something is different by the end. Again, if you are writing with your students, this would be an important step to model for them with your own story-in-progress.

story writing year 1 planning

Step 6: Quick Drafts

Now, have students get their chosen story down on paper as quickly as possible: This could be basically a long paragraph that would read almost like a summary, but it would contain all the major parts of the story. Model this step with your own story, so they can see that you are not shooting for perfection in any way. What you want is a working draft, a starting point, something to build on for later, rather than a blank page (or screen) to stare at.

Step 7: Plan the Pacing

Now that the story has been born in raw form, students can begin to shape it. This would be a good time for a lesson on pacing, where students look at how writers expand some moments to create drama and shrink other moments so that the story doesn’t drag. Creating a diagram like the one below forces a writer to decide how much space to devote to all of the events in the story.

story writing year 1 planning

Before students write a full draft, have them plan out the events in their story with a pacing diagram, a visual representation of how much “space” each part of the story is going to take up.

Step 8: Long Drafts

With a good plan in hand, students can now slow down and write a proper draft, expanding the sections of their story that they plan to really draw out and adding in more of the details that they left out in the quick draft.

Step 9: Workshop

Once students have a decent rough draft—something that has a basic beginning, middle, and end, with some discernible rising action, a climax of some kind, and a resolution, you’re ready to shift into full-on workshop mode. I would do this for at least a week: Start class with a short mini-lesson on some aspect of narrative writing craft, then give students the rest of the period to write, conference with you, and collaborate with their peers. During that time, they should focus some of their attention on applying the skill they learned in the mini-lesson to their drafts, so they will improve a little bit every day.

Topics for mini-lessons can include:

Step 10: Final Revisions and Edits

As the unit nears its end, students should be shifting away from revision , in which they alter the content of a piece, toward editing , where they make smaller changes to the mechanics of the writing. Make sure students understand the difference between the two: They should not be correcting each other’s spelling and punctuation in the early stages of this process, when the focus should be on shaping a better story.

One of the most effective strategies for revision and editing is to have students read their stories out loud. In the early stages, this will reveal places where information is missing or things get confusing. Later, more read-alouds will help them immediately find missing words, unintentional repetitions, and sentences that just “sound weird.” So get your students to read their work out loud frequently. It also helps to print stories on paper: For some reason, seeing the words in print helps us notice things we didn’t see on the screen.

To get the most from peer review, where students read and comment on each other’s work, more modeling from you is essential: Pull up a sample piece of writing and show students how to give specific feedback that helps, rather than simply writing “good detail” or “needs more detail,” the two comments I saw exchanged most often on students’ peer-reviewed papers.

Step 11: Final Copies and Publication

Once revision and peer review are done, students will hand in their final copies. If you don’t want to get stuck with 100-plus papers to grade, consider using Catlin Tucker’s station rotation model , which keeps all the grading in class. And when you do return stories with your own feedback, try using Kristy Louden’s delayed grade strategy , where students don’t see their final grade until they have read your written feedback.

Beyond the standard hand-in-for-a-grade, consider other ways to have students publish their stories. Here are some options:

So this is what worked for me. If you’ve struggled to get good stories from your students, try some or all of these techniques next time. I think you’ll find that all of your students have some pretty interesting stories to tell. Helping them tell their stories well is a gift that will serve them for many years after they leave your classroom. ♦

Want this unit ready-made?

If you’re a writing teacher in grades 7-12 and you’d like a classroom-ready unit like the one described above, including slideshow mini-lessons on 14 areas of narrative craft, a sample narrative piece, editable rubrics, and other supplemental materials to guide students through every stage of the process, take a look at my Narrative Writing unit . Just click on the image below and you’ll be taken to a page where you can read more and see a detailed preview of what’s included.

story writing year 1 planning

What to Read Next

story writing year 1 planning

Categories: Instruction , Podcast

Tags: English language arts , Grades 6-8 , Grades 9-12 , teaching strategies


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Wow, this is a wonderful guide! If my English teachers had taught this way, I’m sure I would have enjoyed narrative writing instead of dreading it. I’ll be able to use many of these suggestions when writing my blog! BrP

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Lst year I was so discouraged because the short stories looked like the quick drafts described in this article. I thought I had totally failed until I read this and realized I did not fai,l I just needed to complete the process. Thank you!

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I feel like you jumped in my head and connected my thoughts. I appreciate the time you took to stop and look closely at form. I really believe that student-writers should see all dimensions of narrative writing and be able to live in whichever style and voice they want for their work.

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Can’t thank you enough for this. So well curated that one can just follow it blindly and ace at teaching it. Thanks again!

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Great post! I especially liked your comments about reminding kids about the power of storytelling. My favourite podcasts and posts from you are always about how to do things in the classroom and I appreciate the research you do.

On a side note, the ice breakers are really handy. My kids know each other really well (rural community), and can tune out pretty quickly if there is nothing new to learn about their peers, but they like the games (and can remember where we stopped last time weeks later). I’ve started changing them up with ‘life questions’, so the editable version is great!

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I love writing with my students and loved this podcast! A fun extension to this narrative is to challenge students to write another story about the same event, but use the perspective of another “character” from the story. Books like Wonder (R.J. Palacio) and Wanderer (Sharon Creech) can model the concept for students.

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Thank you for your great efforts to reveal the practical writing strategies in layered details. As English is not my first language, I need listen to your podcast and read the text repeatedly so to fully understand. It’s worthy of the time for some great post like yours. I love sharing so I send the link to my English practice group that it can benefit more. I hope I could be able to give you some feedback later on.

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Thank you for helping me get to know better especially the techniques in writing narrative text. Im an English teacher for 5years but have little knowledge on writing. I hope you could feature techniques in writing news and fearute story. God bless and more power!

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Thank you for this! I am very interested in teaching a unit on personal narrative and this was an extremely helpful breakdown. As a current student teacher I am still unsure how to approach breaking down the structures of different genres of writing in a way that is helpful for me students but not too restrictive. The story mapping tools you provided really allowed me to think about this in a new way. Writing is such a powerful way to experience the world and more than anything I want my students to realize its power. Stories are how we make sense of the world and as an English teacher I feel obligated to give my students access to this particular skill.

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The power of story is unfathomable. There’s this NGO in India doing some great work in harnessing the power of storytelling and plots to brighten children’s lives and enlighten them with true knowledge. Check out Katha India here:

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Thank you so much for this. I did not go to college to become a writing professor, but due to restructuring in my department, I indeed am! This is a wonderful guide that I will use when teaching the narrative essay. I wonder if you have a similar guide for other modes such as descriptive, process, argument, etc.?

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Hey Melanie, Jenn does have another guide on writing! Check out A Step-by-Step Plan for Teaching Argumentative Writing .

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Hi, I am also wondering if there is a similar guide for descriptive writing in particular?

Hey Melanie, unfortunately Jenn doesn’t currently have a guide for descriptive writing. She’s always working on projects though, so she may get around to writing a unit like this in the future. You can always check her Teachers Pay Teachers page for an up-to-date list of materials she has available. Thanks!

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I absolutely adore this unit plan. I teach freshmen English at a low-income high school and wanted to find something to help my students find their voice. It is not often that I borrow material, but I borrowed and adapted all of it in the order that it is presented! It is cohesive, understandable, and fun. Thank you!!

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So glad to hear this, Nicole!

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Thanks sharing this post. My students often get confused between personal narratives and short stories. Whenever I ask them to write a short story, she share their own experiences and add a bit of fiction in it to make it interesting.

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Thank you! My students have loved this so far. I do have a question as to where the “Frog” story mentioned in Step 4 is. I could really use it! Thanks again.

This is great to hear, Emily! In Step 4, Jenn mentions that she wrote the “Frog” story for her narrative writing unit . Just scroll down the bottom of the post and you’ll see a link to the unit.

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I also cannot find the link to the short story “Frog”– any chance someone can send it or we can repost it?

This story was written for Jenn’s narrative writing unit. You can find a link to this unit in Step 4 or at the bottom of the article. Hope this helps.

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I cannot find the frog story mentioned. Could you please send the link.? Thank you

Hi Michelle,

The Frog story was written for Jenn’s narrative writing unit. There’s a link to this unit in Step 4 and at the bottom of the article.

Debbie- thanks for you reply… but there is no link to the story in step 4 or at the bottom of the page….

Hey Shawn, the frog story is part of Jenn’s narrative writing unit, which is available on her Teachers Pay Teachers site. The link Debbie is referring to at the bottom of this post will take you to her narrative writing unit and you would have to purchase that to gain access to the frog story. I hope this clears things up.

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Thank you so much for this resource! I’m a high school English teacher, and am currently teaching creative writing for the first time. I really do value your blog, podcast, and other resources, so I’m excited to use this unit. I’m a cyber school teacher, so clear, organized layout is important; and I spend a lot of time making sure my content is visually accessible for my students to process. Thanks for creating resources that are easy for us teachers to process and use.

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Do you have a lesson for Informative writing?

Hey Cari, Jenn has another unit on argumentative writing , but doesn’t have one yet on informative writing. She may develop one in the future so check back in sometime.

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I had the same question. Informational writing is so difficult to have a good strong unit in when you have so many different text structures to meet and need text-dependent writing tasks.

Creating an informational writing unit is still on Jenn’s long list of projects to get to, but in the meantime, if you haven’t already, check out When We All Teach Text Structures, Everyone Wins . It might help you out!

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This is a great lesson! It would be helpful to see a finished draft of the frog narrative arc. Students’ greatest challenge is transferring their ideas from the planner to a full draft. To see a full sample of how this arc was transformed into a complete narrative draft would be a powerful learning tool.

Hi Stacey! Jenn goes into more depth with the “Frog” lesson in her narrative writing unit – this is where you can find a sample of what a completed story arc might look. Also included is a draft of the narrative. If interested in checking out the unit and seeing a preview, just scroll down to the bottom of the post and click on the image. Hope this helps!

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Helped me learn for an entrance exam thanks very much

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Is the narrative writing lesson you talk about in

Also doable for elementary students you think, and if to what levels?

Love your work, Sincerely, Zanyar

Hey Zanyar,

It’s possible the unit would work with 4th and 5th graders, but Jenn definitely wouldn’t recommend going any younger. The main reason for this is that some of the mini-lessons in the unit could be challenging for students who are still concrete thinkers. You’d likely need to do some adjusting and scaffolding which could extend the unit beyond the 3 weeks. Having said that, I taught 1st grade and found the steps of the writing process, as described in the post, to be very similar. Of course learning targets/standards were different, but the process itself can be applied to any grade level (modeling writing, using mentor texts to study how stories work, planning the structure of the story, drafting, elaborating, etc.) Hope this helps!

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This has made my life so much easier. After teaching in different schools systems, from the American, to British to IB, one needs to identify the anchor standards and concepts, that are common between all these systems, to build well balanced thematic units. Just reading these steps gave me the guidance I needed to satisfy both the conceptual framework the schools ask for and the standards-based practice. Thank you Thank you.

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Would this work for teaching a first grader about narrative writing? I am also looking for a great book to use as a model for narrative writing. Veggie Monster is being used by his teacher and he isn’t connecting with this book in the least bit, so it isn’t having a positive impact. My fear is he will associate this with writing and I don’t want a negative association connected to such a beautiful process and experience. Any suggestions would be helpful.

Thank you for any information you can provide!

Although I think the materials in the actual narrative writing unit are really too advanced for a first grader, the general process that’s described in the blog post can still work really well.

I’m sorry your child isn’t connecting with The Night of the Veggie Monster. Try to keep in mind that the main reason this is used as a mentor text is because it models how a small moment story can be told in a big way. It’s filled with all kinds of wonderful text features that impact the meaning of the story – dialogue, description, bold text, speech bubbles, changes in text size, ellipses, zoomed in images, text placement, text shape, etc. All of these things will become mini-lessons throughout the unit. But there are lots of other wonderful mentor texts that your child might enjoy. My suggestion for an early writer, is to look for a small moment text, similar in structure, that zooms in on a problem that a first grader can relate to. In addition to the mentor texts that I found in this article , you might also want to check out Knuffle Bunny, Kitten’s First Full Moon, When Sophie Gets Angry Really Really Angry, and Whistle for Willie. Hope this helps!

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I saw this on Pinterest the other day while searching for examples of narritives units/lessons. I clicked on it because I always click on C.o.P stuff 🙂 And I wasn’t disapointed. I was intrigued by the connection of narratives to humanity–even if a student doesn’t identify as a writer, he/she certainly is human, right? I really liked this. THIS clicked with me.

A few days after I read the P.o.C post, I ventured on to YouTube for more ideas to help guide me with my 8th graders’ narrative writing this coming spring. And there was a TEDx video titled, “The Power of Personal Narrative” by J. Christan Jensen. I immediately remembered the line from the article above that associated storytelling with “power” and how it sets humans apart and if introduced and taught as such, it can be “extraordinary.”

I watched the video and to the suprise of my expectations, it was FANTASTIC. Between Jennifer’s post and the TEDx video ignited within me some major motivation and excitement to begin this unit.

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Thanks for sharing this with us! So glad that Jenn’s post paired with another text gave you some motivation and excitement. I’ll be sure to pass this on to Jenn!

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Thank you very much for this really helpful post! I really love the idea of helping our students understand that storytelling is powerful and then go on to teach them how to harness that power. That is the essence of teaching literature or writing at any level. However, I’m a little worried about telling students that whether a piece of writing is fact or fiction does not matter. It in fact matters a lot precisely because storytelling is powerful. Narratives can shape people’s views and get their emotions involved which would, in turn, motivate them to act on a certain matter, whether for good or for bad. A fictional narrative that is passed as factual could cause a lot of damage in the real world. I believe we should. I can see how helping students focus on writing the story rather than the truth of it all could help refine the needed skills without distractions. Nevertheless, would it not be prudent to teach our students to not just harness the power of storytelling but refrain from misusing it by pushing false narratives as factual? It is true that in reality, memoirs pass as factual while novels do as fictional while the opposite may be true for both cases. I am not too worried about novels passing as fictional. On the other hand, fictional narratives masquerading as factual are disconcerting and part of a phenomenon that needs to be fought against, not enhanced or condoned in education. This is especially true because memoirs are often used by powerful people to write/re-write history. I would really like to hear your opinion on this. Thanks a lot for a great post and a lot of helpful resources!

Thank you so much for this. Jenn and I had a chance to chat and we can see where you’re coming from. Jenn never meant to suggest that a person should pass off a piece of fictional writing as a true story. Good stories can be true, completely fictional, or based on a true story that’s mixed with some fiction – that part doesn’t really matter. However, what does matter is how a student labels their story. We think that could have been stated more clearly in the post , so Jenn decided to add a bit about this at the end of the 3rd paragraph in the section “A Note About Form: Personal Narrative or Short Story?” Thanks again for bringing this to our attention!

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You have no idea how much your page has helped me in so many ways. I am currently in my teaching credential program and there are times that I feel lost due to a lack of experience in the classroom. I’m so glad I came across your page! Thank you for sharing!

Thanks so much for letting us know-this means a whole lot!

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No, we’re sorry. Jenn actually gets this question fairly often. It’s something she considered doing at one point, but because she has so many other projects she’s working on, she’s just not gotten to it.

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I couldn’t find the story

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Hi, Duraiya. The “Frog” story is part of Jenn’s narrative writing unit, which is available on her Teachers Pay Teachers site. The link at the bottom of this post will take you to her narrative writing unit, which you can purchase to gain access to the story. I hope this helps!

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Short Story Unit Plan, 9 Short Stories for High School, PDF & Google Drive, CCSS

Short Story Unit Plan, 9 Short Stories for High School, PDF & Google Drive, CCSS

Laura Randazzo

Story Planning Pack


Creative Writing Storyboard & Story Elements Planning Guide | Print OR Digital

The Language of Learning

Plot Structure & Story Elements: Mini Lessons: Lesson Plans, Slides, Posters

Plot Structure & Story Elements: Mini Lessons: Lesson Plans, Slides, Posters

The Stellar Teacher Company

Also included in:  Reading Year Long Bundle: Mini-Lesson Plans, Posters, Slides & More

Story Elements Reader's Workshop Backward Design Unit Plan | 1st Grade RL.1.3

Story Elements Reader's Workshop Backward Design Unit Plan | 1st Grade RL.1.3

Teaching Without Frills

Lucy Calkins Lesson Plans - Grade 3 Writing: Crafting True Stories (Unit 1)

Miss J's Classroom

Also included in:  Lucy Calkins Lesson Plans - Grade 3 Writing: (BUNDLE: 4 Units)

Plan Your Story, Narrative Writing Graphic Organizer

Plan Your Story, Narrative Writing Graphic Organizer

Wendelynn Rigrish


Presto Plans

Storyboard Templates For Story, Video, Skit, Project Planning and Sequencing

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May the "Fours" Be With You: Planning a Story or Summary

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Also included in:  Planning Your Writing {BUNDLE}

French reading comprehension activities | Short Story Bundle - French sub plan

French reading comprehension activities | Short Story Bundle - French sub plan


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Orton Gillingham Mama

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Tracee Orman

Also included in:  Writing Resources Bundle Argument Expository Narrative Journalism

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Daniel's Story Lesson Plans


Short Story Unit Planning - Inclusive Recommendations for Teaching Short Stories

Short Story Unit Planning - Inclusive Recommendations for Teaching Short Stories

Nouvelle ELA

Also included in:  Back to School ELA Activities Bundle - Icebreakers - New Semester

Flexibility When Plans Change - a complete social story unit

Flexibility When Plans Change - a complete social story unit

The Greenhouse Educators

Also included in:  Preschool Bundle 2

Two Kinds by Amy Tan | Short Story Unit Plan | Close Reading & Creative Writing

Two Kinds by Amy Tan | Short Story Unit Plan | Close Reading & Creative Writing


Also included in:  American Immigration Unit: Bundle of Poetry, Short Story, & Non-Fiction Units

Tell-Tale Heart by Edgar Allan Poe - 8 Day Short Story Unit Plan

Tell-Tale Heart by Edgar Allan Poe - 8 Day Short Story Unit Plan

Teach With Erika

Also included in:  Creepy Bundle {Tell Tale Heart Short Story Unit + 4 Inference Reading Passages}

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Orton Gillingham Lesson Plans, Templates, & Decodable Stories LEVEL 1 BUNDLE

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Plot Elements Lesson Plan PLOT DIAGRAM WITH SHORT STORY Close Reading Passage

Jan's File Cabinet

Also included in:  Google Slides and Print LANGUAGE ARTS Lessons and Activities BUNDLE 18

Super 7 Verbs in Spanish Build a Story Activity - Sub Plans

Super 7 Verbs in Spanish Build a Story Activity - Sub Plans

Profe Zulita

Also included in:  High Frequency Super 7 Verbs Unit Bundle of 17 Spanish Resources

Baseball in April and Other Stories Lesson Plans

Baseball in April and Other Stories Lesson Plans

Retelling Stories Activities and Lesson Plans Google Slides Reading Bundle

Retelling Stories Activities and Lesson Plans Google Slides Reading Bundle

The Homeroom Teacher

Also included in:  Interactive Reading Comprehension Lessons and Activities for Primary Grades

Story Planning and Writing Pages: Pages to support the entire process!

Story Planning and Writing Pages: Pages to support the entire process!

Patti Mihalides

Also included in:  New Teacher Survival Kit for Grades 2-4

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Story Planning Worksheets

Subject: English

Age range: 5-7

Resource type: Worksheet/Activity

HappinessTeacher's Shop

Early Years and Key Stage 1 teacher who believes that education should be fun and a happy time for everyone.

Last updated

29 January 2023

A set of English worksheets to be used for planning a story. The children plan their character, the setting, the time of the story and then what happens in the story using a story plan.

These worksheets could be used in Early Years to introduce children to story planning and for children to use to orally retell a story or in Key Stage 1 for children to plan their own story to write.

For my activity Powerpoint for planning a story please see

For my Story Planning and Writing Bundle please see

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A bundle is a package of resources grouped together to teach a particular topic, or a series of lessons, in one place.

Story Planning and Writing Bundle

***Planning a Story*** An English activity to help children to plan a story in a step by step manner. This activity breaks down story planning into small chunks and enables children to plan each stage of the story. The activity encourages lots of talk and children enjoy sharing their ideas about the story. The activity encourages children to think about and describe their character, the setting and the time of their story. Children then plan the problem, what happens first, then and next and then the solution and the ending. The activity gives children different ideas and demonstrates to children that not all stories need to be the same as we all have different ideas and suggestions. I often take several days to work through this activity and to build story plans with the children and find that rereading our story plans regularly helps children when they reach the writing stage. This activity could be used in Early Years to introduce story planning and oral retelling of a story to the children or in Key Stage 1 to support children with story planning and story writing. ***Writing a Story*** An English story writing activity to support children when writing a story. Children plan their story using a story plan. This activity then demonstrates to the children how to write each part of their story using the story plan. I use this activity over several days to support children to write their story and will often cover several parts in one lesson with mini plenaries in between reminding children what their writing needs. Children like the little girl who pops up to ask questions to improve the story. The activity could be used in Early Years for orally retelling a story or in Key Stage 1 for writing a story.

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Teach My Kids

Free Literacy Worksheet. How To Improve Children’s Story Writing & Planning - Story Mountain

How to help children with story writing.

Throughout their school life, children will have listened to many stories being read to them.  Many children also have parents who read to them regularly  and encourage their children to read a variety of stories either to themselves, to siblings or to anyone who will listen! This all provides good foundations for children when it comes to writing their own stories.  They will have ideas, characters and scenarios they can draw upon to help them write their own story.

Children should be exposed to a variety of genres.  Story genres can include: horror, adventure, crime and detective, science fiction, comedy, fairy tales etc.  This will give them the best chance of picking up a variety of ideas and writing styles, that they can then use in their own writing. They might already have a style or genre they prefer.

Helping Children Plan and Write A Story

Planning your story before writing it is very important.  A story plan will help organise your ideas, develop characters and help ensure your story is interesting from beginning to end.   Many stories follow the same basic format.  

Stages Of Story Writing:

1. Plan Your Story

The planning stage is very important, but many children hate this part and see it as a waste of time.  They just want to get onto the writing the story.  However, having a rough plan can help children develop their ideas and structure the story.  The story plan is not set in concrete, if children want to change their ideas as they write, then that is fine.

There are many ways to plan a story.  Here are some story plan ideas:

A story mountain is a good way of helping KS2 children develop their story ideas.

Free Literacy Worksheet to Help Children Write Stories

Click on the download link below for a free story mountain writing frame.  It shows children the kind of story features that need to go into each part of their story.  Use this story mountain to help children plan their stories, before writing them.  Ideas for what to include in the opening, build-up, problem, resolution and conclusion of a story. A useful story writing frame!

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story writing year 1 planning

Story mountain – 7 of the best story structure worksheets and resources for KS1 and KS2 creative writing

story writing year 1 planning

Teach primary children this simple five-stop story structure technique to help them write great fiction, with these activities, ideas and other resources…


What is Story Mountain?

Story Mountain is one story structure or story map that can be taught to children to help them with creative writing.

As the name suggests, these stories build to a big climax or obstacle that needs to be overcome, before being resolved and ended on the other side of the ‘mountain’.

The five parts are:

Story mountain template

Story mountain planner

Want to get straight down to business? Download this free story mountain planner .

Identifying the plot reading and writing worksheets

story writing year 1 planning

Use these plot resources from Plazoom to develop an understanding of the plot in stories you’re reading in school. Pick from the suggested questions to discuss events and sequencing.

In the pack you get question cards, a sequencing worksheet, a story mountain worksheet, a planning sheet and teacher notes.

Plot Diagram Song

Entertain pupils while introducing the concept of story mountains with this Plot Diagram song which will help students increase their storytelling power and learn the elements of plot.

The song is sung to the tune of ‘Big Rock Candy Mountain’.

Another story mountain template

story writing year 1 planning

This PDF template includes space for children to write key information at each of the five points on Story Mountain, as well as some handy prompts to help them think about what to include.

Download and print here.

Teach story mountain with Little Red Riding Hood

story writing year 1 planning

Introduce the concept of Story Mountain to younger pupils by applying it to a story they should all be familiar with.

This printable KS1 worksheet includes squares to cut out with the key events from Little Red Riding Hood on them. They can then place these on the second sheet, the Story Mountain image, and there’s a third sheet to record key characters, interesting adjectives and time connectives.

You can easily adapt this for other familiar stories too.

Get this resource here.

Story writing advice – Author in your Classroom

story writing year 1 planning

This brilliant podcast series has been recorded especially for sharing with pupils. Each episode a well-loved children’s author shares writing tips and advice, and there are exclusive resources packs for every episode.

There’s Sam Copeland talking about  creating characters , Jamie Littler discussing  building fantasy worlds , Struan Murray explaining  how to build suspense  and more.

Check them all out here.

A Story Mountain Alternative – Circular stories

story writing year 1 planning

In this article Rachel Clarke explains that while Story Mountain exemplifies narratives that rise to a high point before falling back to a conclusion, that the language (conflict, climax, resolution, and so on) can be challenging to teach.

Plus, as you’ll no doubt find too, not all of the stories she uses as models for writing necessarily follow the story mountain structure.

So, here she looks into how stories that go round in a circle can teach story structure in a simple and satisfying way, sparking creativity and innovative exploration of narratives.

Read her thoughts here.

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