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What Is a Case Study?
When you’re performing research as part of your job or for a school assignment, you’ll probably come across case studies that help you to learn more about the topic at hand. But what is a case study and why are they helpful? Read on to learn all about case studies.
Deep Dive into a Topic
At face value, a case study is a deep dive into a topic. Case studies can be found in many fields, particularly across the social sciences and medicine. When you conduct a case study, you create a body of research based on an inquiry and related data from analysis of a group, individual or controlled research environment.
As a researcher, you can benefit from the analysis of case studies similar to inquiries you’re currently studying. Researchers often rely on case studies to answer questions that basic information and standard diagnostics cannot address.
Study a Pattern
One of the main objectives of a case study is to find a pattern that answers whatever the initial inquiry seeks to find. This might be a question about why college students are prone to certain eating habits or what mental health problems afflict house fire survivors. The researcher then collects data, either through observation or data research, and starts connecting the dots to find underlying behaviors or impacts of the sample group’s behavior.
During the study period, the researcher gathers evidence to back the observed patterns and future claims that’ll be derived from the data. Since case studies are usually presented in the professional environment, it’s not enough to simply have a theory and observational notes to back up a claim. Instead, the researcher must provide evidence to support the body of study and the resulting conclusions.
As the study progresses, the researcher develops a solid case to present to peers or a governing body. Case study presentation is important because it legitimizes the body of research and opens the findings to a broader analysis that may end up drawing a conclusion that’s more true to the data than what one or two researchers might establish. The presentation might be formal or casual, depending on the case study itself.
Once the body of research is established, it’s time to draw conclusions from the case study. As with all social sciences studies, conclusions from one researcher shouldn’t necessarily be taken as gospel, but they’re helpful for advancing the body of knowledge in a given field. For that purpose, they’re an invaluable way of gathering new material and presenting ideas that others in the field can learn from and expand upon.
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Social Work Law Case Study 4300 words
LAW ASSIGNMENT CASE STUDY
Social work came into being with the introduction of the Local Authority Social Services Act (LASSA) 1970. The Act defines the responsibilities of social workers and how these responsibilities are being applied. This assignment will explore key legislation affecting the roles and responsibilities of Local Government towards people in need of social care provisions. For the purpose of this case study, I will define “Duty” and “Power” in relation to social services legal responsibilities to service users. If a duty is imposed by law, the local authority is legally compelled to carry out a particular function. When referring to a “power” the Local Authority has an element of choice. This means the authority may act in a certain way and is not under a legal obligation to provide a service or assistant (Brammer, 2007). The combination of duties and powers facilitates decision making for Local Authorities (Clements, 2004). While the law outlines various duties and powers these are counterbalanced by issues relating to values and ethics as in the Human Rights Act 1998 (HRA 1998), which aims to ensure that all aspects of our law are compatible with human rights.
- You are the duty social worker at the CMHT what are your powers and duties to intervene?
The duty social worker has a duty to warn others of the risk and also warn the patient of the risk to their behaviour (Hardcastle and Powers, 2004). As a duty social worker within the Community Mental Health Team (CMHT), I would, in the case of Sharon need to apply for deprivation of liberty for hospital treatment, based on the fact that Sharon has schizophrenia which is a recognised mental health disorder under the mental health Codes of Practice 1983 (MHCOP 1983). Under section 117 of the Mental Health Act (MHA) 1983, local authorities have a duty to provide after care services for any person with a mental disorder. This will include people admitted to hospital for treatment (section 3). An individual duty is placed on both local and health authorities to provide the after care services for anyone to whom certain sections of the law applies until both authorities feel the person is no longer in need of the service (Mandelstam, 2000). In this particular case the duty social worker will have the power to call for a supervision order since Sharon suffers from mental illness and has relapsed, and that there is a substantial risk of serious harm to her health and safety or of her being seriously exploited if she was not to receive the after care service to be provided under MHA 1983, s117. Also the supervision order will ensure that Sharon receives the after care service. The application for a supervision order should then be made to the health authority (MHA 1983s25a).
Application for guardianship is made by the local authority’s Approved Mental Health Practitioner (AMHP), with the agreement of the nearest relative requiring written recommendations of two medical practitioners. An application for guardianship comes with a comprehensive care plan under the Care Programme Approach (CPA). The AMHP ensures that a multidisciplinary approach is maintained in developing the care plan (Brammer, 2007)
There are issues with the duty social worker’s powers and duties to intervene which may cause an ethical dilemma for social work practice. The key issue is between preserving the patient’s autonomy as enshrined in the 1998 Human Rights Act and protecting the patient and others. It is therefore important to determine the patient’s capacity. Therefore it is useful to promote non consensual intervention when necessary in order to ensure the appropriate balance of rights, obligations and interests (Potter, 2007).
It is important that a formal process is followed and there are legal backings for the deprivation as stated in the Bournewood judgement (DH, 2006). So the Deprivation of liberty safeguards will apply to those under the 2007 MHA, people in hospitals registered under part 2 of the Care Standards Act 2000, and will apply to people who lack the capacity to give informed consent to the arrangements made for their care, and need to be cared for in circumstances which amounts to a deprivation of liberty in order to protect them from harm.
Under the safeguards there are a number of assessments that can be followed. A mental health assessment could be done under s12 of the MHA 1983. A mental capacity assessment will establish that the person lacks capacity in relation to the question whether Sharon should be a resident in the hospital, and a best interest assessment, which ascertains whether the detention is in the best interest of the person being detained.
The AMHP interviews Sharon before making the decision that sectioning her is the most appropriate way to provide care and medical treatment (Brayne and Carr, 2008). Then the AMHP will liaise with Sharon’ nearest relative as advised by s13 (2) of the MHA 1983. Since Dorothy is Sharon’ nearest relative, It is important to consult with the right relative otherwise this will make the detention unlawful. The AMHP then explains the decision to detain Sharon to all relevant parties such as the doctors, Dorothy and GP. As contained in DH (2008) the AMHP also has the power to inform the police or other relevant parties to transport Sharon to the hospital (s6 MHA1983 and MHCOP 11.8).
Peay (2003) states that while the MHA1983 and MHCOP provides a clear definition of the duties and powers of the AMHP there can be an ethical issue where this conflicts with both personal and professional values.
- You are the duty social worker who spoke to the AMHP. What are the local authority’s legal obligations to Natalie and Sam? What actions do you take? And what are the legal grounds for those actions?
As Natalie and Sam are now alone in the house, the AMHP has a duty to inform the Children’s Team of the children’s current circumstance. Part 3 of the Children’s Act (CA) 1989 defines Children in Need as “unlikely to achieve, maintain or have the opportunity of achieving, maintaining a reasonable standard of health or development without the provision of services by a local authority. Or the health and development of the children in need is likely to be significantly impaired or further impaired without the provision of such service” (CA1989, S17). Local authorities have the duty to safeguard or promote the welfare of the children within their area who are in need by providing a range of appropriate services and accommodation (CA1989, S20).
Brammer (2007) states that Local authorities have a duty of consultation before making decisions around looked after children. Therefore, they must find out the wishes of the children concerned, and the parents. The local authority should also consult with others (including family members who may be seen as relevant to the matter in hand (CA 1989 s22 ). However, in this case Sharon will not be in the position to be consulted just yet, therefore under the Mental Capacity Act (MCA) 2005 she may not have the capacity, but may likely gain capacity again in future therefore she will still maintain responsibility. There is a duty to maintain the child and provide contact with parents, family members and friends. This is not an absolute duty and will depend on the practicalities of individual cases, and where people may be contactable (Ball and Macdonald, 2002). If it is not practicable to place the children with family members or friends (or none of them are contactable) the social worker can place Natalie and Sam in a residential home (Ball and Macdonald, 2002). But they should place them as near to their parent’ home possible.
- You are the allocated social worker for Natalie and Sam. How do you now proceed? And what are your powers and duties?
There are a number of issues the social worker will now have to consider. Firstly, the children will now be separated as their African aunt, Rose, is only able to care for Natalie on a short term basis, as a kinship carer. Sam would then become a looked-after child. Sam will remain under the supervision order, and Sharon can be relinquished of her duties whereby the local authority can now consider adoption (Ball and Macdonald, 2002). The process of review will need to take place at the point which Sharon continues to remain in hospital and says she can no longer care for the children. However, it should also be ascertained whether Sharon had the capacity to make the decision at the time she relinquished responsibilities of the children.
Fostering should now be the step forward. This may be short or long term, it may need to be provided in an emergency, as part of a planned provision of respite care by the local authority or private carer. Foster carers do not acquire parental responsibilities by virtue of the fostering arrangement. This is governed by the Fostering services Regulation (FSR2002, s11) which provides for the approval process of foster carers and written placement agreements. The regulation states that due consideration is given to the child’s wishes and feelings, and dependant on their age and understanding, and considering religious, cultural, racial and linguistic persuasions. The clash here is between Natalie being raised by white parentage and Rose coming from an African background, and the need to promote upbringing of children by their families. These issues will be unravelled by referring to the fostering service to carry out an assessment of any person considered to be suitable to become a foster parent. Since the foster carer is a kinsperson, the rules to kinship caring apply. This arrangement is where a child who cannot be looked after by their parents goes to live with a parent or a family friend (The Children’s Legal Centre, 2008). Rose can care for Natalie under the fostering arrangements for kinship care. Davis (2009) states that where a local authority is satisfied that the immediate placement of a child is necessary they may place a child with a foster carer which is not approved for a six week period. FSR, 2002 section 38 explains the conditions under which this can be met, and the carer can be a relative or friend.
- What are the local authority’s responsibilities towards Sam as a looked After Child and Natalie who is placed with a kinship carer?
In terms of the local authority’s responsibilities, Sam and Natalie will both still be classified as Looked after Children therefore will fall under the same procedures, even though Natalie is under kinship care. The local authority would have obtained an Interim Care Order (ICO) enabling it to have parental responsibility. The care order is made if the court believes the child may suffer if the child is not under any parental control (Section 33 CA 1989). The court makes it a duty for the local authority to receive a child into their care once they receive a care order. But the local authority will also have the power to determine to what extent a parent or guardian of the child may meet his parental responsibility, particularly if they wish to safeguard the child or promote his welfare. (OPSI, 2008)
CA 1989 Section 38 stipulates the duties the local authority will have towards children and young people it looks after. This will include providing suitable accommodation near Sam’s parent’ home as contained in CA 1989 Section 34. If the authority is unable to find a close enough accommodation to Sharon’s house then the authority should make the money available to facilitate such contact (Ryden, 2005). The next responsibility would be to facilitate safe contact by family members and other relevant people. The local authority has a duty to provide Sam with a care plan which must be reviewed every 6 months after the initial review period of 1 month and 3 months.
The local authority should also consider Sam’s religious, cultural and linguistic background when placing him, though this may not necessarily be a duty for the local authority but will be seen as good practice (CA) 1989 Section 22 (5) (c).
In terms of health it is a duty for the local authority to provide regular medical examinations, as in Promoting the health of looked after children (DH, 2002a).
The local authority has a duty to support the educational achievements of Looked After Children as stipulated in the Local Authority Social Services Act (LASSA)1970 Section 7, and in Care Matters (DfES, 2007) and also in s52 CA 2004. The duty of a local authority under sub section (3) (a) to safeguard and promote the welfare of a child looked after by them includes in particular a duty to promote the child’s educational achievement. (Crown Copyright, 2004) Social workers work in partnership with the local authority in consulting with the Local Education Authority (LEA) to ensure that the right educational provisions are in place. The authority will then need to place Sam in a school within 14 days of obtaining an accommodation (Brammer, 2007).
Despite the duties the Local Authority must follow, Sam and Natalie’s wishes must be taken into account throughout, apart from consent to accommodation (Davis, 2009).
- What actions do you and the local authority take and on what legal grounds?
The CA 1989 section 47 places an immediate duty on the local authority to investigate a child’s circumstances when there is information that gives reasonable cause to suspect that a child who lives or is found in their area is suffering or is likely to suffer significant harm. Since the allegation involves a foster carer, the procedure for investigation is outlined in the Carers and Disabled Children’s Act (CDCA) 2000 and the London Child Protection Procedures (LSCB, 2007) which calls for a strategy meeting to be held within three working days involving relevant professionals (including an OFSTED representative, as it involves a child) who are expected to determine a course of action. The police should be involved because there may be a criminal act to investigate. Sam must have a medical examination within 24 hours of the bruises being identified by his aunt. The Commission for Social Care Inspectorate (CSCI) are to be notified of the incident against Sam since they regulate and inspect registered carers.
The major purpose of the investigation will now be to protect Sam as best as possible. Therefore a decision will be made as to whether to place Sam on the Child Protection Register. However, the preferred option might be to suspend the services of the perpetrator and any other children under his care.
Sam will need to be interviewed by an independent social worker trained in attaining best evidence, which promotes impartiality throughout the investigation (Brayne and Carr, 2008). If the allegation is substantiated the perpetrator may be asked to leave the home under the Domestic Violence Act (2004). A fostering panel will take place to review the situation. Every Child Matters clearly states that the police should be informed before telling the person who is subject to the allegation because a criminal investigation might take place (DfES, 2006).
- As their supervising social worker you need to advise them. What would you discuss with them in relations to the legal options?
Under the Care Standards Act 2000 adoption agencies are regulated by the Commission for Social Care Inquiry (CSCI). The social worker will follow the Local Authority Adoption Service (England) Regulations (2003) which provide a children’s guide to adoption services for children and prospective adopters. The social worker in an adoption case is likely to work with the children’s intended adopters, family members and other relevant parties (Brammer, 2007). The Adoption and Children’s Act (ACA) 2002 introduces provisions which obliges the court to consider arrangement for contact. Adoption and placement orders can only be made by the court. LASSA 1970 s7 provides National Adoptions Standards that must be met by the Local Authority. A few of these include, the child’ need for a permanent home to be discussed at the review meeting, a suitable adoption match. Statutory guidance to ACA 2002 is also contained in DfES (2005).
Before making a placement order the court must consider arrangements or proposals for contact, then invite the parties to comment under s26 ACA 2002. At the Adoption application stage, s46 (6) requires that before making an adoption order the court must consider arrangements made by the long term carers. If the court considers that an order for contact should be made this will be covered under s8. It is no longer possible to attach contact conditions to an adoption order. Contact will also be considered as part of subsection f in the welfare checklist (ACA2002, s1 (4)) as a necessary relationship which Natalie and Sam will have for their relatives. Once the adoption order has gone through, the biological parents are no longer parents under the CA 1989.
The court must not make any order under the Act unless it considers that making it will be better for the child than not doing so (ACA 2002, s 1(6). The court is obliged to consider whether other orders such as supervision and special guardianship might be more appropriate than adoption. The court has to consider the HRA 1998 due to the obvious interference with family life that an adoption order will effect as in the case of RE M(A Minor) (Adoption or residence order)  FLR 520.
There are conditions in place for making an adoption order. Parents or guardians should consent to the adoption (ACA 2002, s20). If parents do not consent a placement order can be obtained (ACA 2002 s21). When the child has lived with the prospective adopters for up to 10 weeks, the adopters may apply for an adoption order. The adopted person will be treated by law the same way as if the adopters had given birth to them, and any other holder of parental responsibility is removed (ACA 2002 s67). The Adoption agencies Regulations 2005 require the local government to establish an adoption panel. DH (2002, p36) states that:
“The role of the adoption panel is to provide an independent perspective, informed by a broad range of expertise to monitor and quality assure social work recommendations on adoption cases”.
The panel must decide whether adoption is in the best interest of the child, the suitability of prospective adoptive parents and matching the child to the adoptive parents.
- What are the CMHT’s responsibilities towards Sharon?
Brammer (2007) states that a patient can be discharged from hospital as soon as he or she is found not to be suffering from a mental disorder. It is then the duty of the CMHT to provide after care services until Dorothy is no longer in need of these services (MHA1983, s117). The decision will be made jointly by the health team and the CMHT. However, Dorothy is under no obligation to accept after care and has a legal right to refuse, although in reality if the patient is receiving medication and no longer takes them or plans not to take them they can be detained further. The CMHT must also complete a multidisciplinary care plan for after care. This must also include a risk assessment for discharge (DH, 1995).
Sharon can receive supervised discharge under the Mental Health (Patients in the Community) Act (1995). This will ensure that she receives after care services which the CMHT must support the application. The CMHT will have to devise a care plan once Sharon is out of the hospital. However, the CMHT must also consider Sharon’s wishes as well as her needs and that of relevant others in Sharon’s life such as family members (Clements, 2004). The Care Plan will follow the model of the Care Programme Approach (CPA). DH (1995) also stipulates that CPA should be applied to patients who are accepted by specialist psychiatric services. The National Service Framework (NSF) for Mental Health (DH, 1999) sets standards as to what the CPA must adhere. Standard 4 states that Sharon must receive care which increases engagement and reduces risks. The CPA must give Sharon a copy of her care plan which is regularly reviewed. Services must be accessed all the time.
The local authority will assess, plan, review and coordinate the range of treatment, care and support needs for Sharon under the CPA, while the service user will be involved throughout the process. FACS may apply with regards tackling inequalities to ensure that those who meet the eligibility criteria will receive the service, based on assessment of individual needs. The local government will then be able to fund those who are mostly in need. However, the CPA is not a measure of eligibility. If support under the CPA arrangement is needed this will depend on a number of factors including risk of suicide, self harm, relapse, abuse and exploitation (DH, 2008a)
- What are the local authority’s powers and duties towards Dorothy and Sharon?
The Local Authority has the power to make arrangements to promote the welfare of older people (under the Health Services and Public Health Act 1995) though they will not have the power to make the person take up the service. Under the National Health Service and Community Care Act 1990 section 47 the Local Authority has a duty to undertake an assessment of the needs of an individual for community care services. Dorothy can be assessed under the Fair Access to Care Services (FACS) 2002 which has four eligibility bands to help the local authority ration resources (Brayne and Carr, 2008).
The local authority has a duty to inform Sharon and Dorothy of any other services that they or any other organisation provides for people with disabilities as contained in the Disabled (Services, Consultation and Representation) Person’ Act 1986 section 1. Dorothy can also receive the relevant service for her health and social care needs, as contained in the National Framework for Older people (DH, 2001) . The Local Authority however, does not have the power to impose any service against Dorothy’s wishes, and respect her rights to take risks. The important issue in this case is to realise the capacity a person has, and balance this with the duty of the local authority to minimise risks. This will make it easier for social workers to deal with ethical dilemmas of this nature.
The local authority has a duty to offer Dorothy and Sharon direct payments for her to purchase services of her own choice and to choose her own support staff where necessary. This is covered in the Community Care, Services for Carers and Children’s Services (Direct Payments) Regulations 2003 section 1 and the Community Care (Direct Payments) Act 1996.
DH (2001) guidelines also expects the Local Authority to set up a Single Assessment Process which aims to speed up response time for older people who require service and reduce duplication in assessments. However, a critic of this process is that in order to improve practice and responses, more time was actually being spent by professionals.
- Why might they have been refused bail? What are the legal responsibilities of the Youth Justice team in relations to Natalie and what options are available to the court?
If a juvenile is charged with an offence, the custody officer will have to consider bail. If bail is refused the child must be remanded to appear before the youth court at the earliest opportunity. Until then the child must be accommodated by the local authority (PACE 1994, s38 (6). If the child is over the age of 12 as in Natalie’s case then this will be a secure accommodation. The police can therefore refuse bail if they believe it is in the best interest of the child to do so. Other grounds for refusing bail as stated in PACE s 38, will not apply in Natalie’s case. Brayne and Carr (2008) believes that the best interest judgement may apply where Natalie will be transferred to a local authority accommodation pending trial, which may offer more prevention from Natalie committing another offence while awaiting trial. This implies that Natalie will no longer stay with her Aunt Rose.
Natalie will then receive services from the Youth Offending team (YOT) which are required by the Crime and Disorder Act (CDA) 1998. Every child matters also set out key outcomes for children with respect to early intervention and prevention (Home Office, 2003). The Children Act 2004 then provided structural changes for the delivery of children services requesting for the police authorities, probation boards and the YOT to cooperate in improving children’s well being (DfES, 2004).
The YOT must follow the Youth Justice plan (CDA1998, S40) in order to meet national objectives. Responsibilities of YOT include making assessments of children and young persons for rehabilitation programmes to prevent reoffending, where the young person receives a reprimand or final warning; provide support for children and young persons remanded or committed on bail.
The cases outlined above included relevant areas of four care provisions where the Local Authority has powers and duties to act. These are mental health services, children and adoption services, the Youth justice system and older people’s services. These cases have shown that the law plays an important part in social work practice. While the law defines many areas of duties demonstrated in the cases which govern practice, there are also areas where social workers make decisions without being subject to the law. The assignment tackled ethical issues where this conflicts with both personal and professional values. The key issue is between preserving the patient’s autonomy as enshrined in the 1998 Human Rights Act, and protecting the patient and others. It is also useful to promote non consensual intervention when necessary in order to ensure the appropriate balance of rights, obligations and interests. The Local Authority, however, does not have the power to impose any service against people’s wishes, and must respect people’s rights to take risks. The important issue in this case is to realise the capacity a person has, and balance this with the duty of the local authority to minimise risks. This will make it easier for social workers to deal with ethical dilemmas of this nature.
Ball, C and Macdonald, A (2002) Law for Social Workers (4 th ed), Aldershot, Ashgate Publishing
Brammer, A. (2007) Social Work Law , 2nd edition, Harlow, Pearson Longman
Brayne, H and Carr, H (2008) Law for Social Workers (10 th ed) Oxford, Oxford University Press
Clements, J (2004) Community Care and the Law , London, LAG Education and Services Trust
Davis, L (2009) The Social Workers Guide to Children and Families Law , London, Jessica kingsley
DfES (2007) Care Matters: Time for Change, London, The Stationary Office
DfES (2006) Every Child Matters: Working Together to safeguard Children: a guide to inter agency working to safeguard and promote the welfare of children , London, The Stationary Office
DfES (2004) Every Child Matters: Change for Children in the Criminal Justice System , London, The Stationary Office
DH (2008) Code of Practice, Mental Health 1983 , London, The Stationary Office
DH (2008a) Refocusing the Care Programme Approach: Policy and Positive Practice Guidance , Crown Copyright
DH (2006) Bournewood Briefing Sheet , London, The Stationary Office
DH (2002) A Fundamental Review of the Operations of Adoption Panels , London, The Stationary Office.
DH (2002a) Promoting the Health of Looked After children, London, The Stationary Office.
DH (2001) National Service Framework for Older People and System Reform, London, Crown Copyright
DH (1999) National Service Framework for Mental Health: Modern Standards and Service Models , London, Crown Copyright
DH (1995) Building bridges: A guide to arrangements for interagency working for the care and protection of severely mentally ill people , London, Stationary Office.
Hardcastle, D, Powers, P and Wenocur, S (2004) Community Practice: Theories and Skills for Social Workers, Oxford, Oxford University Press
Home Office (2003) Youth Justice – The next Step: Companion document to Every Child Matters , London, Crown Copyright
Home Office (1998) Establishing Youth Offending Teams , London, and Crown Copyright
London Safeguarding Children Board (2007) London Child Protection Procedures , 3 rd edition, London, LSCB
Mandelstam, M. (2000) An A-Z of Community Care Law, London, Jessica Kingsley Publishers
Potter, M (2007) Mental Health Capacity and Non Consensual Intervention: A Human Rights Perspective, Northern Ireland Human Rights Commission Review, Issue 5, summer 2007,
Peay, J (2003) Decisions and Dilemmas: Working with Mental Health Law , Oregan, Hart Publishing
Ryden, N (2005) Family Support in Children and Families . In Jowit, M and O’Loughlin, S (ed) 2005, Social Work with Children and Families , Exeter, Learning Matters Limited.
Office of Public Sector Information (OPSI, 2008) Care order:
www.opsi.gov.uk/acts/acts1989/ukpga last accessed 05/11/2008
The Children’s Legal Centre (2008) Kinship Care:
http://www.childrenslegalcentre.com/Resources/CLC/Documents/PDF%20A-MKinship%20care%20leaflet.pdf accessed 02/04/09
Adoption and children’s Act 2002
Adoption agencies Regulations 2005
Carers and Disabled Children’s Act 2000
Children’s Act 1989
Children’s Act 2004
Community Care (Direct Payments) Act 1996.
Crime and Disorder Act 1998
Fostering Service Regulations 2002
Health Services and Public Health Act 1995
Human Rights Act 1998
Local Authority Social Services Act 1970
Mental Health Act 1983
Mental Capacity Act 2005
Mental Health (Patients in the Community) Act (1995)
National Health Service and Community Care Act 1990
Re M (A Minor) (Adoption or residence order)  FLR 520.
Social Work Law Essay
Unit 10 assignment – caring for children and young people – task 3.
within this assignment I will be talking about the factors which could lead to suspicion of child maltreatment or abuse, different strategies and methods that are used in order to minimise the harm to children, young people and their families where and when the abuse is confirmed. I will also be talking about the responses where child maltreatment or abuse is suspected or confirmed relating to current legislations and policies.
Essay on Child Safeguarding
- 1 Works Cited
This assignment will discuss “Amie’s case study” and will explore some of the risks that she is exposed too and how they can have effect on her welfare. I will start by defining what is child safeguarding centred on the legislation framework of the Children Act 2004. I will also look on what is abuse and naming types of abuse, and establish the knowledge and understanding of Assessment Framework in Amie’s case. I will also look at multi-professional strategies that can provide help and protect Amie and her siblings according to legal legislation.
Summary Of The Legal Requirements And Guidance Relating To Safeguarding
Section 47 of the Act places a duty upon local authorities to investigate such situations whereby 'there is reasonable cause to suspect that a child is suffering or likely to suffer harm'.
Social Work Case Study Essay
Ms. Apple is a 45 year old African American woman who has been a widow for about 4 years. Ms. Apple has three children, whose ages range from 5-12 years old. Ms. Apple has been struggling to keep her family afloat since the death of her husband. Ms. Apple convinced herself that she would not require the extra assistance. However, she realized in attempting to provide alone has not only become very strenuous, but also quite costly. Expenses have become overwhelming for Ms. Apple to maintain, since her husband took care of the finances and was the breadwinner for the family. Ms. Apple has minimal education as she is able to read and write at grade school level. Ms. Apple also has never been employed as she was a home maker. At this
The Importance Of Safeguarding The Well Being Of Children And Young People Essay
The current legislation is the result of the children’s Act 1989, which is used to ensure that all people who work with children are working together and are clear about their responsibilities and know how to act if allegations of child abuse are made. The children’s act 2004 is a legal framework for “Every Child Matters” and is a direct result of the Laming Report following the death of the Victoria Climbie case in the year 2000. Hereafter an independent inquiry highlighted so many problems with how the reports of neglect and child abuse was dealt with and that vulnerable people in society were not being properly safeguarded. The main points of the 2004 Children’s Act were that every local authority has a director of children’s services who is ultimately responsible for ensuring that children are safeguarded.
Guide To Safeguarding Child Abuse
Practitioners and professionals working with children on a daily basis are in a good position to notice changes in a child's or young person’s behaviour which may be a possible sign of abuse. Children or young people may also confide in practitioners or allege that abuse has taken place.
Children 's Act Of 1984 And The Children Act
In recent times safeguarding of children has once again come under spotlight with cases such as Madline McKan and the horrific murders of Jessica Chapman and Holly Wells. Prior to this the Children’s act of 1984 and updated 2004 version highlighted that all professionals have an obligation to report suspected abuse. There was a public inquiry in 2000 to address the failure of the law which was not upholding the protection of vulnerable children. There was changes to the legislation and the government set up The Every Child Maters (ECM) initiative. This works in line with current legislation Working Together to Safeguard Children 2006 Act. This Act authorised guidance on how organisations and individuals should work together to safeguard and promote the welfare of children and young people in accordance with the Children Act 1989 and the Children Act 2004. All organisations must have the succeeding policies and procedures:
Assess strategies and methods used to minimise the harm to children, young people and their families where abuse is confirmed (M3). Justify responses where child maltreatment or abuse id suspected or confirmed, referring to current legislation and policies (D2)
unit 10 P5 M3
Case study: Paul is 10 years old. His teachers that he might be suffering from abuse at home have reported it to the Local authority. He will be starting secondary school in a month’s time. The local authority is due to put him in care temporarily whilst investigations take place.
Safeguarding the Welfare of Children and Young People
The aim of this act is to simplify the laws that are already in place, which protect children and young people in the UK. It was seen as a “serious shake up” of children’s rights and protection, and also made it clear what the duties are for all who work with children and young people and how they should work as a team in the event of a child abuse allegation.
Social Workers: Influence of the Ecological Approach on Social Practice
- 21 Works Cited
Social worker in charge of particular cases of a suspected child maltreatment must initially complete a core assessment of the child and his family's situation. This process is crucial for planning of an intervention with a positive outcome (Parker and Bradley, 2003). In the assessment, under the ecological model, the practitioner must recognise different systems, such as the child, family or neighbours, and surrounding environments. If the assessment asserts that a child fits a category of a child in need within these systems, defined in the Children Act 1989 as a child 'unlikely to achieve or maintain (...) a reasonable standard of health or development without the provision for him of services by a local authority' (Children Act, 1989, section 17), the social worker must organise a form of an intervention. He or she must assess which part of the environment requires a change, and where are stress factors negatively affecting the child and the family. At the same time, the child should be given resources, and a certain level of autonomy, and to be treated as the centre of the assessment (Teater, 2010). In the ecological perspective, it might be easier for the social worker to relate to the adults' needs (Davies and Davies, 2011). However, the focus of the assessment should be child-centred, protecting the child's health and wellbeing (Every Child Matters, 2004)(Department of Education, 2011).
Daniel Pelka report Essay example
During Ms Luczaks pregnancy with Baby Adam the domestic abuse continued and reports of violence were made. It was considered that no child protection concerns were raised at present but the conversation had been recorded in case of any further incidents and MS Luczak had been informed of this conversation that took place between then midwife and social worker. This had only been recorded on Adams file and not the other children.
Guidelines, Policies And Procedures Within Own Uk Home Affecting The Safeguarding Of Children And Young People
Working Together to Safeguard Children (2010) sets out the guidelines on how the setting and individuals should work to safeguard and promote the welfare of children and young people. This is in conjunction with the Children Act 1989 and the Children Act 2004. This document covers what to do when there are concerns about a child and the correct procedures to follow. In addition it states the roles and responsibilities of different agencies and practitioners, summary of the nature and impact of child abuse, training requirements for effective child protection and how to best operate best practice in child protection procedure.
Case Study in Social Work Practice
This essay will identify a case I have been involved in and have continuously had to assess whilst on placement. It will refer to a child who will be identified as A. A is a young carer and has only recently returned home after being removed from his mothers care due to her having a substance abuse problem and mental health concerns. I will link the legal framework that was relevant to this case study and describe actions taken. Additionally these actions will demonstrate the application of social work methods and theories that were contributive elements in his intervention, offering explanations as to why these particular methods were used. Before closing, the essay will review any issues of discrimination with a reflection of the
Social Workers and Policy Advocacy Essay
- 4 Works Cited
As a social worker it is important to engage in policy practice. It is a part of the profession, whether you like it or not. It is an aspect that can change the way things are done for clients in a good way or bad. If you want to be more affective in practice, advocating for policies is one way of making sure your clients receive what they deserve. Chapin (2011) talks about how as a social worker you cannot take on every social policy issue, but it is important to consider the policies that affect your client population.
- Children Act 1989
- Social work
- International Federation of Social Workers
- Foster care
Social Work Law Case Study
Social work and the law looks at the interface between the practice of social work and the legal system that includes statutory law, case law and legal institutions. Law is central for social work practice in that many social work clients will inevitably be involved in legal systems such as child protection. As social workers, it’s important to be aware of the laws and regulations relevant to the client in order to be able to effectively provide support and advice. Social work practice in NI is influence by and guided by a number of legislations and laws it’s important for social work to be guided by transparent rules etc. (Parker reference) as often involved in difficult ethical decision making. At the heart of social work practice is the …show more content…
In this essay, the author
- Explains that social work and the law looks at the interface between the practice of social workers and legal systems, including statutory law and case law. social workers need to be aware of laws and regulations relevant to their clients.
- Opines that social work practice in ni is influenced by and guided by a number of legislations and laws.
- Explains that social work practice is based on the need to treat everyone with dignity. this idea extends into public bodies and regulatory forces such as niscc.
- Explains that principles of human rights and social justice are fundamental to social work practice.
- Explains that the european convention on human rights (195/3) is one of the international treaties that are relevant to social work practice in northern ireland.
- Opines that the european convention on human rights plays a vital role in the development and increased awareness of human rights issues across europe.
- States that the human rights act sets out and outlines some of the fundamental rights that everyone in the uk is entitled to. the act incorporates the european convention on human rights into our domestic courts and requires public bodies to act in a way which is compatible with convention rights.
- Explains that while the echr is one of the primary human rights documents, the uk and likewise northern ireland are subject to a range of human rights obligations.
- Explains that the northern ireland act 1998 requires public bodies to promote equality between people on a number of grounds including gender disability, religious belief, and likewise sexual orientation.
- Explains that the northern ireland human rights commission (nihrc) was established following the belfast agreement. its statutory task is to ensure that law and practice in ni is compatible with human rights law.
- Explains that the echr has had a significant impact on the legal culture of northern ireland.
- Explains that the human rights act sets out what rights and freedoms citizens can expect and outlines a series of articles which deals with different rights.
- Explains that these tights are taken from the echr and as such are commonly referred to as the convention rights.
Human rights are inseparable from all parts of social work practice including theory, values and ethics and likewise practice. Social work practice as such incorporates aspect of the law as a sound guideline for decision making and likewise as a baseline for how each individual should be treated. Working with a human rights framework, Social workers can facilitate the inclusion of individuals marginalized, vulnerable or at risk, they can address and challenge barriers that exist in society and likewise can formulate and implement policies and programs that enhance peoples welling, their human rights and likewise social …show more content…
The largest growth in claims occurred in 2001, following the implantation of the human rights act in 2000, with the percentage of ECHR claims increasing to 63% of all judicial review cases being presented. This increase in ECHR cases being presented remained high in following years and highlights that awareness of human rights protections and a willingness to invoke the rights substantially increased following the implementation of the Human Rights Act, indicating that the ECHR has had a significant impact on the legal culture of Northern Ireland. However, despite this major increase, judges I Northern Ireland have found to be unwilling to act upon or enact any proceedings regarding the ECHR claims with only one declaration of incompatibility being issues since 2000. (Weiden,
- Explains that social workers have many responsibilities and obligations that come with the job. they have the obligation to protect the human rights of their clients and abide in an ethical manner.
- Explains that social workers have many important responsibilities, including promoting human rights and abide by the code of ethics. they are set apart from other occupations by their need to promote social justice.
- Explains that social work promotes social justice by working towards an end goal for their client's. this is especially hard for the homeless and people who are living in poverty.
- Opines that social workers have the obligation and responsibilities to protect human rights. after the holocaust, the united nations created the declaration of human rights to address some of the same issues.
- Opines that all people need and crave social interaction and emotional fulfillment. from the beginning of childhood, humans thrive off personal contact with others.
- Explains that society and its institutions are the basis of development within organized groups of people. they provide rules and regulations that help guide and encourage this development.
- Explains that social work empowers individuals through a variety of different tactics. advocating for social justice is an ongoing job.
- Explains that human nature is characteristics that generally apply to all people, such as being impatient, wanting to be accepted, and so on. social work is an example of a profession that confronts these questions.
- Opines that it is essential in life for people to know their own personal reality and the realities around them. a healthy person is honest with themselves, even when they may not want to admit something.
- Explains the nature of truth and knowledge ties into reality. people must first be familiar with themselves and the outside world, taking in realistic truths about what they know to be true.
- Opines that people tend to be universally motivated by inclusion. if a large group is participating or will provide support, they may feel more inclined to join.
- Opines that social workers should not try to change a person, but rather change the way they may think and cope in life situations. they want to create social change and social justice.
- Explains that social workers need to assess the immediate needs of a specific group, community, or institution. they can categorize from most important to least important.
- Explains that easy sources of knowledge include dialogue between group or community members, while more in depth sources include doing research using credible resources such as online databases or governmental documents.
- Explains that social workers and other members of a treatment/intervention team can work together in defining needs and issues to be addressed while including input from clients.
- Explains that a social worker brings client perspective, professional knowledge of practice, research, and communication skills. they are usually in direct contact with clients.
- Explains that social workers must participate in policy advocacy. they should become familiar with who they are advocating to and identify feasible strategies that adhere to the concerns of agents.
- Opines that it is in the client's responsibility to share all necessary info with workers and commit to being part of the change.
- Opines that we should first believe in our hearts to make a difference because if we don't, there will always be something that will disappoint us. we should give credit when credit is due and acknowledge when progress is made while maintaining positive and proactive attitude.
- Explains that social work has existed in many different variations since the beginning of society.
- Explains that children are fiercely valued and protected, as they are considered the future of society. the elizabethan poor act of 1601 enabled children to obtain a trade apprenticeship.
- Explains how youth social services progressed along with social reforms to remain consistent with the public's view of children as a vulnerable class of people that needed to be protected by the state.
- Explains that the children and social work act is a social work regulator that refines the rights and services that young people in the care of the state can expect to receive.
- Explains that mental illness was not accepted as a normal affliction until the industrial revolution and the emergence of social services led to the establishment of asylums.
- Explains how the national health services and community care act of 1990, fueled by society's determination to protect the "infringement on [the] human rights" of the mentally ill, abolished asylums.
- Explains the five year forward view (fyfv), which outlines the future improvements that will be implemented in the uk's health services.
- Argues that social work exists inextricably within the presence of ethics and values, defining contemporary best practice. however, social workers operating in australian health face dilemmas of meeting at times, untenable ideals
- Explains that the australian association of social workers (aasw) code of ethics proposes three core values of social work: respect for persons, social justice and professional integrity.
- Explains that social workers define the rights and dignity of human beings, including the priority of wellbeing, worth, autonomy and social inclusion of all service users, as well as the value of relationships, social justice, and cultural diversity through out society.
- Explains that decisions a social worker makes are not just guided by organisational or professional values, but also personal values. banks (2006) considers social workers engaged in vocation rather than profession, due to the underlying personal value involved.
- Explains that their career path has merged with social work for all the reasons cited above. they continue to work amongst these for the plight of others and the belief that they contribute in a moral and fulfilling way.
- Explains that rural health services struggle to address australia's indigenous health crisis. rural australians have limited access to health resources, resulting in higher mortality rates and poorer health than those in urbanised areas.
- Explains that rural australia has marked populations of indigenous, whose proportion increases in very remote locations. remote health services are often subject to policies tainted by power imbalance, racist and prejudiced in their approach.
- Analyzes how statistics show injustice and human rights violations, and the constraints social workers face operating from the value set of their profession.
- Explains that social workers' ability to support indigenous service users is severely compromised. barriers of culture, trust, disadvantage, knowledge and support challenge the delivery of services to indigenous people.
- Explains that a major hurdle for indigenous health is the vast divide in beliefs towards health and healing, causes and treatments from western medicine and traditional aboriginal perspective.
- Explains that ill-health is a manifestation of spiritual and emotional alienation from land, family and culture. australian social workers face an uphill battle of autonomy when righting inequalities of health, living standards and human rights for its indigenous consumers.
- Opines that traditional medicine provides a ‘why’ to illness that western medicine fails to address. this discrepancy leads many indigenous people to suffer in silence or refuse treatment for obligations.
- Opines that it would be unfair to expect indigenous australians to realise self-determination without the support of social services. if rural health services are under-resourced, prejudiced, lacking cultural competence, social workers will struggle to fulfil objectives towards indigenous service users.
- Cites their current role supporting adult survivors of child sexual abuse as evidence. they must abide by principles of their organisation that is both privately run and accountable to government.
- Describes how they worked with a stolen generations client from remote queensland who had grown up in orphanages due to forcible removal.
- Explains that indigenous health and the role of social workers in the rural environment are not without their complexities.
- Explains that social work is a profession that seeks to improve the standard of life for individuals and to effect system-wide change through the pursuit of social justice.
- Explains that social work has a huge impact within communities, but there are existing factors causing difficulties within the profession.
- Opines that the lack of promotion has led to minimum diversity within the workers, and that social workers stir away from title dependency. students in schools have minimal and limited interactions with outside programs.
- Explains that social work is the correction and prevention of injurious relations, and its aim in common with that of the law, is public well-being.
- Explains that social work and public defense found renewed zeal and vigor in the 1960’s, an era that witnessed increased government funding for social services through the war on poverty.
- Opines that lawyers and social workers share the commitment to the client and goals of justice. both are a resource to people in their times of greatest need.
- Analyzes how social workers have been concerned with the concept of justice during the riots in la after the rodney king beatings. bryan stevenson explores this message in his memoir just mercy.
- Explains that the intersection between social work and the legal is becoming more deeply linked. many people involved in the judicial system have not only legal problems but also social ones.
- Explains that the current drug policy targeted the poor communities in mostly urban areas, and disproportionally incarcerated scores of people of color with the "stop and frisk" policies.
- Explains that social workers are becoming critical players in the healthy application of justice. they ensure the defendant has the space to explain their story and promote the benefits of rehabilitation instead of incarceration.
- Describes melinda roberts' paper titled a social worker’s role in drug court, which outlines 10 guiding principles that suggest a blueprint for intervention in the judicial system by social workers.
- Argues that directing resources toward solving homelessness could save society money by helping fix other social issues.
- Explains that supportive housing is well served for those with mental health diagnoses and addiction problems. policy and practice can provide solutions with the cooperation of social workers and policy makers.
- Opines that the role of the justice system should be to assure juveniles are not repeat offenders. however, there are times when these services operate on different planes.
- Opines that to be effective in the social work profession, we must understand the similarities and differences of the legal system and human services system.
- Explains that social workers are an inevitable part of interdisciplinary teams in addressing the needs of clients who seek legal remedies and services.
- Analyzes how social workers interface with attorneys when both work in a shelter, or any other domestic violence organization. the paper will present solutions or recommendations for collaboration to professionals from social work and law in different settings or under different relations.
- Explains reamer's four stages of development of the social work code of ethics: the morality period, the values period and the ethical theory and decision making period.
- Explains why social workers and lawyers often have conflictual situations, particularly at a domestic violence organization.
- Explains that social workers focus on social justice, self-determination, and human rights, whereas lawyers focus only on the client.
- Explains that lawyers often have financial interests by representing clients, problems are argumentative, cooperation is not a value, justice is based on procedure and not substantive. social workers are not paid by clients.
- Explains that child abuse and neglect is a public health issue and an insidious crime.
- Explains that the american bar association adopted the canon of professional ethics in 1908. the watergate incident led to the need for developing ethical standards.
- Explains that the women's movement recognized the need for a place for battered women to escape from perpetrators in the early 1970s.
- Explains that aba's model rules of professional conduct (mrpc) states that nonlawyer’s conduct should be in accordance with the professional obligations of the lawyer.
- Analyzes the case response based on an article describing the suspension of a nurse from her job because she offered to pray for an elderly patient.
- Explains that adult social care is a huge area of law governed by many different legislations too large to cover in this case response.
- Explains that the human rights act applies the echr directly into uk law. the nhs trust could argue that her actions amounted to abuse and if it did not take action while they investigated the matter, they would be breaching the patient’s human rights.
- Argues that drawing a line by courts and local authorities can be harmful to society. roche and stringer argue that court decisions can potentially disadvantage the socially marginalised.
- Concludes that the promotion of equality of different protected groups and preventing discriminatory behaviour is sometimes not an easy task. reform with more openness to what values society should prioritise and under what grounds.
- Argues that the nhs trust must prohibit direct or indirect discrimination towards individuals with certain characteristics and consider how their policies and actions will affect people with protected characteristics.
- Explains brayne, carr, and christian concern's johns fostering case: effects of the ruling and further analysis.
- Explains the european convention on human rights' appendix 3: articles 8, 9, 10 and 14.
- Explains that they began their research trying to find a negative perspective of social workers. they wanted to analyze the public's perception.
- Opines that the public's definition of social workers, in terms of what they do, is insufficient.
- Concludes that the public's definition of social is inaccurate, but with the right skills and positive attitude a person in this field can help change this negative perception.
- Explains that they have a distinct opinion of what the social work profession is. they argue the different public's views based on interviews, readings, and personal experience.
- Analyzes the public's perception of a social worker based on their responses.
- Cites dubois, miley, and pearson's the five most popular social work careers.
- Explains that the code of ethics is an important part of a social worker's career by giving them basic guidelines, principles, standards, and values/morals for which they should follow.
- Explains that the national association of social workers considers service, social justice, dignity and worth of the person, importance of human relationships, integrity, and competence as its core values.
- Explains that social workers can show dignity and worth to a client through respect and compassion, and the importance of human relationships. integrity and competence are important values.
- Opines that the values listed in the nasw are important values for all social workers to uphold. they believe that all people should learn to have more respect for others regardless of differences.
- Opines that diversity is a very important aspect of someone's life. they believe in human rights, and that people should be able to practice and do what makes them happy.
- Opines that the national association of social work's code of ethics is crucial to social workers and can be applied to everyday life.
- International Federation of Social Workers
Essay about Social Work Law
Social Work Law This assignment involves a case study where Ralph, a fourteen year old boy, is currently in foster care because his mother; Kerry, felt she was unable to control him due to his behaviour. However, Kerry has now expressed that she is unhappy with this foster placement and has requested that her son be returned to live with her and his two younger brothers. The scenario becomes more complex owing to the fact that Ralph has disclosed that his mother had regularly hit him with a walking stick. In this essay I will seek to consider the main practice issues raised by the scenario of the case study. Using the materials provided within the course along with my own professional experience, I will outline relevant legislation …show more content… As the social worker involved with this case, I would want to carry out an assessment before Ralph returns home to his Mother. However, Ralph is in foster care voluntarily which means that his mother can return him home as she wishes. Under section 20 of the Children Act 1989, any person who has parental responsibility for a child may at any time remove the child from accommodation provided by or on behalf of the Local Authority under this section [s.20 (8) ]. Nonetheless, section 20 would be the most desirable option as it would be the least oppressive way to accommodate the young person while the assessment takes place. This would require cooperation from Kerry, Ralph’s mother. I would visit Kerry and try to explain the situation and the concerns that I and the other professionals had. This is likely to have a devastating impact on Kerry so this must be done in a sensitive way. The local authority is under obligation to work in partnership with the families of children in need or at risk. Sections 22 and 61 of the Children Act 1989 require local authorities and voluntary organisations to consult, where reasonably possible, with the child and the parents before making any decision in relation to the child (Block 3, p103). Before considering keeping Ralph in foster care, I would want to explore other options of residence. The case study does not mention Ralph’s birth father or whether he currently has a relationship with him. This would Show More
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Social Work Practice with Carers
Case Study 2: Josef
Download the whole case study as a PDF file
Josef is 16 and lives with his mother, Dorota, who was diagnosed with Bipolar disorder seven years ago. Josef was born in England. His parents are Polish and his father sees him infrequently.
This case study looks at the impact of caring for someone with a mental health problem and of being a young carer , in particular the impact on education and future employment .
When you have looked at the materials for the case study and considered these topics, you can use the critical reflection tool and the action planning tool to consider your own practice.
- One-page profile
Transcript (.pdf, 48KB)
Name : Josef Mazur
Gender : Male
Ethnicity : White European
Download resource as a PDF file
First language : English/ Polish
Religion : Roman Catholic
Josef lives in a small town with his mother Dorota who is 39. Dorota was diagnosed with Bi-polar disorder seven years ago after she was admitted to hospital. She is currently unable to work. Josef’s father, Stefan, lives in the same town and he sees him every few weeks. Josef was born in England. His parents are Polish and he speaks Polish at home.
Josef is doing a foundation art course at college. Dorota is quite isolated because she often finds it difficult to leave the house. Dorota takes medication and had regular visits from the Community Psychiatric Nurse when she was diagnosed and support from the Community Mental Health team to sort out her finances. Josef does the shopping and collects prescriptions. He also helps with letters and forms because Dorota doesn’t understand all the English. Dorota gets worried when Josef is out. When Dorota is feeling depressed, Josef stays at home with her. When Dorota is heading for a high, she tries to take Josef to do ‘exciting stuff’ as she calls it. She also spends a lot of money and is very restless.
Josef worries about his mother’s moods. He is worried about her not being happy and concerned at the money she spends when she is in a high mood state. Josef struggles to manage his day around his mother’s demands and to sleep when she is high. Josef has not told anyone about the support he gives to his mother. He is embarrassed by some of the things she does and is teased by his friends, and he does not think of himself as a carer. Josef has recently had trouble keeping up with course work and attendance. He has been invited to a meeting with his tutor to formally review attendance and is worried he will get kicked out. Josef has some friends but he doesn’t have anyone he can confide in. His father doesn’t speak to his mother.
Josef sees some information on line about having a parent with a mental health problem. He sends a contact form to ask for information. Someone rings him and he agrees to come into the young carers’ team and talk to the social worker. You have completed the assessment form with Josef in his words and then done a support plan with him.
Back to Summary
What others like and admire about me
Good at football
Finished Arkham Asylum on expert level
What is important to me
Mum being well and happy
Seeing my dad
Being an artist
Seeing my friends
How best to support me
Tell me how to help mum better
Don’t talk down to me
Talk to me 1 to 1
Let me know who to contact if I am worried about something
Work out how I can have some time on my own so I can do my college work and see my friends
Don’t tell mum and my friends
Date chronology completed : 7 March 2016
Date chronology shared with person: 7 March 2016
Young Carers Assessment
Do you look after or care for someone at home?
The questions in this paper are designed to help you think about your caring role and what support you might need to make your life a little easier or help you make time for more fun stuff.
Please feel free to make notes, draw pictures or use the form however is best for you.
What will happen to this booklet?
This is your booklet and it is your way to tell an adult who you trust about your caring at home. This will help you and the adult find ways to make your life and your caring role easier.
The adult who works with you on your booklet might be able to help you with everything you need. If they can’t, they might know other people who can.
- I will share this booklet with people if I think they can help you or your family
- I will let you know who I share this with, unless I am worried about your safety, about crime or cannot contact you
- Only I or someone from my team will share this booklet
- I will make sure this booklet is stored securely
- Some details from this booklet might be used for monitoring purposes, which is how we check that we are working with everyone we should be
- I know that this booklet might get shared with other people who can help me and my family so that I don’t have to explain it all over again
- I understand what my worker will do with this booklet and the information in it (written above).
Name : Josef Mazur Address : 1 Green Avenue, Churchville, ZZ1 Z11 Telephone: 012345 123456 Email: [email protected] Gender : Male Date of birth : 11.11.1999 Age: 16 School : Green College, Churchville Ethnicity : White European First language : English/ Polish Religion : Baptised Roman Catholic GP : Dr Amp, Hill Surgery
The best way to get in touch with me is:
Do you need any support with communication?
*Josef is bilingual – English and Polish. He speaks English at school and with his friends, and Polish at home. Josef was happy to have this assessment in English, however, another time he may want to have a Polish interpreter. It will be important to ensure that Josef is able to use the words he feels best express himself.
About the person/ people I care for
I look after my mum who has bipolar disorder. Mum doesn’t work and doesn’t really leave the house unless she is heading for a high. When Mum is sad she just stays at home. When she is getting hyper then she wants to do exciting stuff and she spends lots of money and she doesn’t sleep.
Do you wish you knew more about their illness?
Do you live with the person you care for?
What I do as a carer It depends on if my mum has a bad day or not. When she is depressed she likes me to stay home with her and when she is getting hyper then she wants me to go out with her. If she has new meds then I like to be around. Mum doesn’t understand English very well (she is from Poland) so I do all the letters. I help out at home and help her with getting her medication.
Tell us what an average week is like for you, what kind of things do you usually do?
Monday to Friday
Get up, get breakfast, make sure mum has her pills, tell her to get up and remind her if she’s got something to do.
If mum hasn’t been to bed then encourage her to sleep a bit and set an alarm
College – keep phone on in case mum needs to call – she usually does to ask me to get something or check when I’m coming home
Go home – go to shops on the way
Remind mum about tablets, make tea and pudding for both of us as well as cleaning the house and fitting tea in-between, ironing, hoovering, hanging out and bringing in washing
Do college work when mum goes to bed if not too tired
Do proper shop
See my friends, do college work
Sunday – do paper round
Physical things I do….
(for example cooking, cleaning, medication, shopping, dressing, lifting, carrying, caring in the night, making doctors appointments, bathing, paying bills, caring for brothers & sisters)
I do all the housework and shopping and cooking and get medication
Things I find difficult
Emotional support I provide…. (please tell us about the things you do to support the person you care for with their feelings; this might include, reassuring them, stopping them from getting angry, looking after them if they have been drinking alcohol or taking drugs, keeping an eye on them, helping them to relax)
If mum is stressed I stay with her
If mum is depressed I have to keep things calm and try to lighten the mood
She likes me to be around
When mum is heading for a high wants to go to theme parks or book holidays and we can’t afford it
I worry that mum might end up in hospital again
Mum gets cross if I go out
Please tell us about any other support the person you care for already has in place like a doctor or nurse, or other family or friends.
The GP sees mum sometimes. She has a nurse who she can call if things get bad.
Mum’s medication comes from Morrison’s pharmacy.
Dad lives nearby but he doesn’t talk to mum.
Mum doesn’t really have any friends.
Do you ever have to stop the person you care for from trying to harm themselves or others?
Some things I need help with
Sorting out bills and having more time for myself
I would like mum to have more support and to have some friends and things to do
On a normal week, what are the best bits? What do you enjoy the most? (eg, seeing friends, playing sports, your favourite lessons at school)
When mum is up and smiling
On a normal week, what are the worst bits? What do you enjoy the least? (eg cleaning up, particular lessons at school, things you find boring or upsetting)
Nagging mum to get up
Friends laugh because I have to go home but they don’t have to do anything
What things do you like to do in your spare time?
Do you feel you have enough time to spend with your friends or family doing things you enjoy, most weeks?
Do you have enough time for yourself to do the things you enjoy, most weeks? (for example, spending time with friends, hobbies, sports)
Are there things that you would like to do, but can’t because of your role as a carer?
Can you say what some of these things are?
See friends after college
Go out at the weekend
Time to myself at home
It can feel a bit lonely
I’d like my mum to be like a normal mum
School/ College Do you think being your caring role makes school/college more difficult for you in any way?
If you ticked YES, please tell us what things are made difficult and what things might help you.
Things I find difficult at school/ college
Sometimes I get stressed about college and end up doing college work really late at night – I get a bit angry when I’m stressed
I don’t get all my college work done and I miss days
I am tired a lot of the time
Things I need help with…
I am really worried they will kick me out because I am behind and I miss class. I have to meet my tutor about it.
Do your teachers know about your caring role?
Are you happy for your teachers and other staff at school/college to know about your caring role?
Do you think that being a carer will make it more difficult for you to find or keep a job?
Why do you think being a carer is/ will make finding a job more difficult?
I haven’t thought about it. I don’t know if I’ll be able to finish my course and do art and then I won’t be able to be an artist.
Who will look after mum?
What would make it easier for you to find a job after school/college?
Finishing my course
Mum being ok
How I feel about life…
Do you feel confident both in school and outside of school?
Somewhere in the middle
In your life in general, how happy do you feel?
In your life in general, how safe do you feel?
How healthy do you feel at the moment?
Do you think people listen to what you are saying and how you are feeling?
If you said no, can you tell us who you feel isn’t listening or understanding you sometimes (eg, you parents, your teachers, your friends, professionals)
I haven’t told anyone
I can’t talk to mum
My friends laugh at me because I don’t go out
Do you think you are included in important decisions about you and your life? (eg, where you live, where you go to school etc)
Do you think that you’re free to make your own choices about what you do and who you spend your time with?
Not often enough
Is there anybody who knows about the caring you’re doing at the moment?
If so, who?
I told dad but he can’t do anything
Would you like someone to talk to?
Supporting me Some things that would make my life easier, help me with my caring or make me feel better
I don’t know
Fix mum’s brain
People to help me if I’m worried and they can do something about it
Not getting kicked out of college
Free time – time on my own to calm down and do work or have time to myself
Time to go out with my friends
Get some friends for mum
I don’t want my mum to get into trouble
Who can I turn to for advice or support?
I would like to be able to talk to someone without mum or friends knowing
Would you like a break from your caring role?
How easy is it to see a Doctor if you need to?
To be used by social care assessors to consider and record measures which can be taken to assist the carer with their caring role to reduce the significant impact of any needs. This should include networks of support, community services and the persons own strengths. To be eligible the carer must have significant difficulty achieving 1 or more outcomes without support; it is the assessors’ professional judgement that unless this need is met there will be a significant impact on the carer’s wellbeing. Social care funding will only be made available to meet eligible outcomes that cannot be met in any other way, i.e. social care funding is only available to meet unmet eligible needs.
Date assessment completed : 7 March 2016
Social care assessor conclusion
Josef provides daily support to his mum, Dorota, who was diagnosed with bipolar disorder seven years ago. Josef helps Dorota with managing correspondence, medication and all household tasks including shopping. When Dorota has a low mood, Josef provides support and encouragement to get up. When Dorota has a high mood, Josef helps to calm her and prevent her spending lots of money. Josef reports that Dorota has some input from community health services but there is no other support. Josef’s dad is not involved though Josef sees him sometimes, and there are no friends who can support Dorota.
Josef is a great support to his mum and is a loving son. He wants to make sure his mum is ok. However, caring for his mum is impacting: on Josef’s health because he is tired and stressed; on his emotional wellbeing as he can get angry and anxious; on his relationship with his mother and his friends; and on his education. Josef is at risk of leaving college. Josef wants to be able to support his mum better. He also needs time for himself, to develop and to relax, and to plan his future.
Eligibility decision : Eligible for support
What’s happening next : Create support plan
Completed by Name : Role : Organisation :
Name: Josef Mazur
Address 1 Green Avenue, Churchville, ZZ1 Z11
Telephone 012345 123456
Email [email protected]
Date of birth: 11.11.1999 Age: 16
School Green College, Churchville
Ethnicity White European
First language English/ Polish
Religion Baptised Roman Catholic
GP Dr Amp, Hill Surgery
My relationship to this person son
Name Dorota Mazur
Date of birth 12.6.79 Age 36
First language Polish
Religion Roman Catholic
Support plan completed by
Date of support plan: 7 March 2016
This plan will be reviewed on: 7 September 2016
Signing this form
Please ensure you read the statement below in bold, then sign and date the form.
I understand that completing this form will lead to a computer record being made which will be treated confidentially. The council will hold this information for the purpose of providing information, advice and support to meet my needs. To be able to do this the information may be shared with relevant NHS Agencies and providers of carers’ services. This will also help reduce the number of times I am asked for the same information.
If I have given details about someone else, I will make sure that they know about this.
I understand that the information I provide on this form will only be shared as allowed by the Data Protection Act.
Josef has given consent to share this support plan with the CPN but does not want it to be shared with his mum.
The social work role with carers in adult mental health services has been described as: intervening and showing professional leadership and skill in situations characterised by high levels of social, family and interpersonal complexity, risk and ambiguity (Allen 2014). Social work with carers of people with mental health needs, is dependent on good practice with the Mental Capacity Act where practitioner knowledge and understanding has been found to be variable (Iliffe et al 2015).
- Carers Trust (2015) Mental Health Act 1983 – Revised Code of Practice Briefing
- Carers Trust (2013) The Triangle of Care Carers Included: A Guide to Best Practice in Mental Health Care in England
- Mind, Talking about mental health
- Tool 1: Triangle of care: self-assessment for mental health professionals – Carers Trust (2013) The Triangle of Care Carers Included: A Guide to Best Practice in Mental Health Care in England Second Edition (page 23 Self-assessment tool for organisations)
Mental capacity, confidentiality and consent
Social work with carers of people with mental health needs, is dependent on good practice with the Mental Capacity Act where practitioner knowledge and understanding has been found to be variable (Iliffe et al 2015). Research highlights important issues about involvement, consent and confidentiality in working with carers (RiPfA 2016, SCIE 2015, Mental Welfare Commission for Scotland 2013).
- Beddow, A., Cooper, M., Morriss, L., (2015) A CPD curriculum guide for social workers on the application of the Mental Capacity Act 2005 . Department of Health
- Bogg, D. and Chamberlain, S. (2015) Mental Capacity Act 2005 in Practice Learning Materials for Adult Social Workers . Department of Health
- Department of Health (2015) Best Interest Assessor Capabilities , The College of Social Work
- RiPfA Good Decision Making Practitioner Handbook
- SCIE Mental Capacity Act resource
- Tool 2: Making good decisions, capacity tool (page 70-71 in good decision making handbook)
A young carer is defined as a person under 18 who provides or intends to provide care for another person. The concept of care includes practical or emotional support. It is the case that this definition excludes children providing care as part of contracted work or as voluntary work. However, the local authority can ignore this and carry out a young carer’s need assessment if they think it would be appropriate. Young carers, young adult carers and their families now have stronger rights to be identified, offered information, receive an assessment and be supported using a whole-family approach (Carers Trust 2015).
- SCIE (2015) Young carer transition in practice under the Care Act 2014
- SCIE (2015) Care Act: Transition from children’s to adult services – early and comprehensive identification
- Carers Trust (2015) Rights for young carers and young adult carers in the Children and Families Act
- Carers Trust (2015) Know your Rights: Support for Young Carers and Young Adult Carers in England
- The Children’s Society (2015) Hidden from view: The experiences of young carers in England
- DfE (2011) Improving support for young carers – family focused approaches
- ADASS and ADCS (2015) No wrong doors: working together to support young carers and their families
- Carers Trust, Supporting Young Carers and their Families: Examples of Practice
- Refugee toolkit webpage: Children and informal interpreting
- SCIE (2010) Supporting carers: the cared for person
- SCIE (2015) Care Act Transition from children’s to adults’ services – Video diaries
- Tool 3: Young carers’ rights – The Children’s Society (2014) The Know Your Rights pack for young carers in England!
- Tool 4: Vision and principles for adults’ and children’s services to work together
Young carers of parents with mental health problems
The Care Act places a duty on local authorities to assess young carers before they turn 18, so that they have the information they need to plan for their future. This is referred to as a transition assessment. Guidance, advocating a whole family approach, is available to social workers (LGA 2015, SCIE 2015, ADASS/ADCS 2011).
- SCIE (2012) At a glance 55: Think child, think parent, think family: Putting it into practice
- SCIE (2008) Research briefing 24: Experiences of children and young people caring for a parent with a mental health problem
- SCIE (2008) SCIE Research briefing 29: Black and minority ethnic parents with mental health problems and their children
- Carers Trust (2015) The Triangle of Care for Young Carers and Young Adult Carers: A Guide for Mental Health Professionals
- ADASS and ADCS (2011) Working together to improve outcomes for young carers in families affected by enduring parental mental illness or substance misuse
- Ofsted (2013) What about the children? Joint working between adult and children’s services when parents or carers have mental ill health and/or drug and alcohol problems
- Mental health foundation (2010) MyCare The challenges facing young carers of parents with a severe mental illness
- Children’s Commissioner (2012) Silent voices: supporting children and young people affected by parental alcohol misuse
- SCIE, Parental mental health and child welfare – a young person’s story
Tool 5: Family model for assessment
- Tool 6: Engaging young carers of parents with mental health problems or substance misuse
Young carers and education/ employment
Transition moments are highlighted in the research across the life course (Blythe 2010, Grant et al 2010). Complex transitions required smooth transfers, adequate support and dedicated professionals (Petch 2010). Understanding transition theory remains essential in social work practice (Crawford and Walker 2010). Partnership building expertise used by practitioners was seen as particular pertinent to transition for a young carer (Heyman 2013).
- TLAP (2013) Making it real for young carers
- Learning and Work Institute (2018) Barriers to employment for young adult carers
- Carers Trust (2014) Young Adult Carers at College and University
- Carers Trust (2013) Young Adult Carers at School: Experiences and Perceptions of Caring and Education
- Carers Trust (2014) Young Adult Carers and Employment
- Family Action (2012) BE BOTHERED! Making Education Count for Young Carers
Download The Triangle of Care as a PDF file
The Triangle of Care Carers Included: A Guide to Best Practice in Mental Health Care in England
The Triangle of Care is a therapeutic alliance between service user, staff member and carer that promotes safety, supports recovery and sustains wellbeing…
Download the Capacity Tool as a PDF file
Capacity Tool Good decision-making Practitioners’ Handbook
The Capacity tool on page 71 has been developed to take into account the lessons from research and the case CC v KK. In particular:
- that capacity assessors often do not clearly present the available options (especially those they find undesirable) to the person being assessed
- that capacity assessors often do not explore and enable a person’s own understanding and perception of the risks and advantages of different options
- that capacity assessors often do not reflect upon the extent to which their ‘protection imperative’ has influenced an assessment, which may lead them to conclude that a person’s tolerance of risks is evidence of incapacity.
The tool allows you to follow steps to ensure you support people as far as possible to make their own decisions and that you record what you have done.
Download Know your rights as a PDF file
Tool 3: Know Your Rights Young Carers in Focus
This pack aims to make you aware of your rights – your human rights, your legal rights, and your rights to access things like benefits, support and advice.
Need to know where to find things out in a hurry? Our pack has lots of links to useful and interesting resources that can help you – and help raise awareness about young carers’ issues!
Know Your Rights has been produced by Young Carers in Focus (YCiF), and funded by the Big Lottery Fund.
Tool 4: Vision and principles for adults’ and children’s services to work together to support young carers
Download the tool as a PDF file
You can use this tool to consider how well adults’ and children’s services work together, and how to improve this.
Click on the diagram to open full size in a new window
This is based on ADASS and ADCS (2015) No wrong doors : working together to support young carers and their families
Download the tool as a PDF file
You can use this tool to help you consider the whole family in an assessment or review.
What are the risk, stressors and vulnerability factors?
How is the child/ young person’s wellbeing affected?
How is the adult’s wellbeing affected?
What are the protective factors and available resources?
This tool is based on SCIE (2009) Think child, think parent, think family: a guide to parental mental health and child welfare
Tool 6: Engaging young carers
Young carers have told us these ten things are important. So we will do them.
- Introduce yourself. Tell us who you are and what your job is.
- Give us as much information as you can.
- Tell us what is wrong with our parents.
- Tell us what is going to happen next.
- Talk to us and listen to us. Remember it is not hard to speak to us we are not aliens.
- Ask us what we know and what we think. We live with our parents; we know how they have been behaving.
- Tell us it is not our fault. We can feel guilty if our mum or dad is ill. We need to know we are not to blame.
- Please don’t ignore us. Remember we are part of the family and we live there too.
- Keep on talking to us and keeping us informed. We need to know what is happening.
- Tell us if there is anyone we can talk to. Maybe it could be you.
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- Social Work and the Law
Social Work and the Law - Case Study Example
- Subject: Law
- Type: Case Study
- Level: Masters
- Pages: 5 (1250 words)
- Downloads: 3
- Author: fritschsylveste
Extract of sample "Social Work and the Law"
In other instances, abuse reports from hospital visits were ignored and the child was returned to her abusers. The Timeline article noted that three social workers were sacked after a public inquiry by Lord Laming found them guilty of negligence. Since Victoria's death, there has been an upheaval in reforms to protect children, young people and vulnerable adults, especially in the areas of social work and the government in the UK. Under the Children's Act of 2004 (Smith 2005), legislation in the following areas has been introduced: physical and mental health, emotional well being, protection from harm and neglect, education training and recreation, contributions by children to society, and social and economic well being.
The question becomes whether these generalized areas can become focused enough to matter. Studies indicate that the basic areas affected by the Act are the rights of children through the revised Mental Health Act; needs of pupils through Qualification and Curriculum Authority (QCA)__related to the number of new international family arrivals; disability awareness training; the Education Act 2005; help for people with dementia through the International Health Study related to quality of life; the need for new legislation prohibiting discrimination because of sexual orientation, and the effort to balance work and life in the community (Background 2006).
This is an ambitious enterprise, but given past history, it is not likely that the Children Act 2004 will resolve all of the issues in conflict. There is presently a two-year assessment underway funded by the Nuffield Foundation which began in October 2004 and will continue to September 2006. The assessment is based on the Human Rights Act of 1998 which brought the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) into UK domestic law, and the purpose is to determine anti-discriminatory measures available under the Equality Bill which extend to children and young people (All Party Parliamentary 2005).
One concern in the Climbi inquiry was allegation of racism. Victoria was African and spoke little English (Timeline 2003). At present, no police officers criticised by the inquiry have lost their jobs, and one of the social workers involved has been allowed to resume working with children (Climbi Inquiry 2005). With anti-discrimination a key concern in the UK and Blacks, ethnic minorities and the disabled the focus of many reforms underway, the social aims of the UK government are commendable, but one wonders if they can actually change public perception in a way that creates a safe environment for children.
The policies contained in the law have weaknesses. The Equality Bill allows for enforcement against anti-discriminatory actions, but, according to the Child Impact Statement, "its powers in relation to the Human Rights Act 1998 are primarily promotional." Clause 9(2)(a) of the Equality Bill defines human rights as ECHR rights specifically, though subsection (b) enables the new Commission on Equality and Human Rights to exercise its functions in respect of other human rights. This could include the UN Convention on the Rights of the
- Case Study Of Child Abuse And Neglect Social Work
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