100 Multiple Choice Questions with Answers on Thinking and Problem Solving

Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs) with Answers on “Thinking and Problem Solving” for Psychology Students:

401. According to Jean Piaget, preoperational children are: (a) Egocentric (b) Social (c) Flexible (d) Complex

402. Some psychologists suggested that the speed with which cognitive units or knowledge can be retrieved from long term memory im­proves with age, making it possible for older children to integrate more old and new in­formation during the process that is called: (a) Working memory (b) Short-term memory (STM) (c) Rote memory (d) Long-term memory (LTM)

403. Short-term memory (STM) lasts about: (a) 20 Seconds (b) 30 Seconds (c) 15 Seconds (d) 10 Seconds

404. A larger working-memory capacity makes it possible to solve more complex problems. With the development, there is: (a) Growth in the ability to hold information in working memory. (b) Complexity in the ability to hold information in working memory. (c) Understanding of concepts and syllables (d) Imitation of behaviour of parents

405. Symbolic concepts become more readily available for use in: (a) Dreams (b) Imagination (c) Learning (d) Thought

406. Concepts are not static unit of knowledge. These are: (a) Dynamic and constantly changing (b) Complex and developing (c) Flexible and simple (d) Highly convertible

407. Children’s knowledge about memory processes is called: (a) Metamemory (b) Learning (c) Strategy (d) Inference

408. Which term refers to the mental activities involved in the acquisition, processing, organization and use of knowledge? (a) Emotion (b) Cognition (c) Feeling (d) Imagination

409. In which type of memory, the materials are stored for later retrieval? (a) Rote memory (b) Sensory memory (c) Short-term memory (STM) (d) Long-term memory (LTM)

410. With development, children’s memory relies more heavily on: (a) Imagination (b) Symbolic concepts (c) Gestures (d) Experiences

411. The current Stanford-Binet Intelligence Test is descended from the test developed by Binet and Simon: (a) In early 1900s (b) In early 1800s (c) In early 1600s (d) In early 1700s

412. The first intelligence test was designed by two French men and they are: (a) Binet and Simon (b) Allen and Honzik (c) Anastasi and Forguson (d) Weschlar and Fechner

413. The capacity to learn and adapt to the requirements for survival in one’s culture is called: (a) Intelligence (b) Memory (c) Emotion (d) Learning

414. Who described the composition of intelli­gence in terms of intellectual breadth and intellectual attitude? (a) J.B. Watson (b) W. Kohler (c) Jean Piaget (d) Jensen

415. Who told that mental functioning involves two types of abilities – an associative ability and a cognitive ability? (a) J. B. Watson (b) A. R. Jensen (c) Wilhelm Wundt (d) E. B. Titchener

416. Who viewed intelligence as an attribute of the person like any other attribute such as blood pressure and temperature etc? (a) R. B. Cattell (b) E. L. Thorndike (c) A. R. Jensen (d) Carl Spearman

417. Who postulated the two-factor theory of intelligence? (a) J.B. Watson (b) R. B. Cattell (c) E. L. Thorndike (d) A.R.Jensen

418. A learning theorist had told about three levels of intelligence in his theory. These are-Abstract level of intelligence, Mecha­nical level of intelligence and social level of intelligence. Who was he? (a) R. B. Cattell (b) Carl Spearman (c) A. R. Jensen (d) E. L. Thorndike

419. The first systematic theory on the nature of intelligence was developed by: (a) A. R. Jensen (b) E. L. Throndike (c) Carl Spearman (d) R. B. Cattell

420. Who told about the “general factor” and “specific factor of intelligence”? (a) Carl Spearman (b) A. R. Jensen (c) E. L. Thorndike (d) R. B. Cattell

421. According to Spearman, the capacity for activities like reading a novel, speaking fluently, planning the train route from a map etc. involve: (a) The manifestation of general intelligence in greater degree (b) The manifestation of specific intelli­gence in greater degree (c) Abstract level of intelligence (d) Primary mental ability

422. According to Cattell, the capacity required for learning and problem solving inde­pendent of education and experience is known as: (a) Fluid intelligence (gf) (b) Crystalized intelligence (ge) (c) Specific factor (S) (d) General factor (G)

423. The first Binet-Simon scale of intelligence was constructed in the year: (a) 1908 (b) 1905 (c) 1903 (d) 1900

424. Who introduced the term “Intelligence Quo­tient” (I.Q.)? (a) A. R. Jensen (b) E. L. Thorndike (c) R. B. Cattell (d) William Stern

426. If a child’s chronological age (CA) is 8 years and his mental age is 10 years, his I.Q. will b: (a) 125 (b) 110 (c) 140 (d) 190

427. A child of average intelligence at any level will have an I.Q. of: (a) 120 (b) 140 (c) 130 (d) 100

428. The term “intelligence” is derived from a Latin word, framed by Cicero to translate a Greek word used by Aristotle to include: (a) All cognitive processes (b) All effective processes (c) Specific cognitive processes (d) Specific effective processes

429. The simultaneous existence of two opposed emotions, motivations or attitudes e.g. love- hate, approach-avoidance is called: (a) Ambivalence (b) Narcissism (c) Rationalization (d) Instinct

430. The proverbial story of milkmaid’s daughter is an illustration of: (a) Dream (b) Creative Thinking (c) Fantasy (d) Divergent Thinking (e) Convergent Thinking

431. An organised imagination around a certain theme or extent or problem is known as: (a) Fantasy (b) Dream (c) Image (d) Creative Thinking (e) Autistic Thinking

432. If we sit down and start visualising about heaven, the pleasures there in, this would be: (a) Fantasy (b) Dream (c) Day-dreaming (d) Imagination (e) Concept formation

433. If we start visualising that we will go to heaven and start experiencing all the pleasures therein, this would be: (a) Dream (b) Fantasy (c) Day-dreaming (d) Imagination (e) None of the above

434. The difference between day-dreams and fantasy is that the former are much more organised and relate to the: (a) Conscious mental activity of the indi­vidual (b) Unconscious mental activity of the indi­vidual (c) Subconscious mental activity of the individual (d) Both conscious and unconscious acti­vities of the individual (e) Both subconscious and unconscious activities of the individual

435. The capacity for day-dreaming depends on the development of the concept of: (a) “Ego” or “I” (b) “Super Ego” (c) “Id” (d) “Libido” (e) “Oedipus Complex”

436. The temporary ego-centred holidays from reality is known as: (a) Fantasy (b) Day-dreams (c) Images (d) Concepts (e) Precepts

437. Delusions can be classified into two types and these are: (a) Grandeur and persecution (b) Direct and indirect (c) Systematic and unsystematic (d) Transitory and permanent (e) None of the above

438. Some delusions are there which are brief or fleeting. These are called: (a) Transient Delusions (b) Delusion of Grandeur (c) Chronic Delusions (d) Delusion of Persecution (e) None of the above

439. Some delusions are there which are very elaborate and many completely engulf the individual. These are called: (a) Delusion of Grandeur (b) Delusion of Persecution (c) Chronic or Systematic Delusions (d) Transient Delusions (e) None of the above

440. “Sometimes an individual feet’s that he is being harassed, persecuted and plotted against by everyone. He is obsessed with the idea that everybody around is out to get him, harm him, kill him and he is a victim of domestic, national and international conspiracies”. This is an example of: (a) Delusion of Grandeur (b) Delusion of Persecution (c) Transient Delusions (d) Systematic Delusions (e) None of the above

441. The ideas which were interfering with the solution of the problem tend to fade in: (a) Evaluation Period (b) Incubation Period (c) Verification Period (d) Preparation Period (e) None of the above

442. The last stage of Creative Thinking is: (a) Verification (b) Evaluation (c) Incubation (d) Preparation (e) None of the above

443. In one kind of delusion, the person becomes a millionaire by a twist of the mind. He becomes the ruler of the universe, or a great personage endowed with divine powers. What delusion is it? (a) Delusion of Persecution (b) Transient Delusion (c) Delusion of Grandeur (d) Hypochondriacal Delusion (e) None of the above

444. Hypochondriacal delusions are concerned with an excessive preoccupation with imaginary: (a) Physical diseases (b) Mental diseases (c) Psychoses (d) Physical or Mental disease (e) None of the above

445. Self-condemnatory delusions generally ref­lect a need for: (a) Punishment (b) Reward (c) Reinforcement (d) Affection (e) None of the above

446. “Ideas of reference” often supplement: (a) Delusions of Grandeur (b) Hypochondriacal Delusion (c) Delusions of Persecution (d) Transient Delusion (e) None of the above

447. Hypochondriasis is usually interpreted as an escape from life difficulties: (a) By a flight into unconscious stage (b) By a flight into dream (c) By a flight into disease (d) By a flight into coma stage (e) None of the above

448. Jean Piaget was a/an: (a) Swiss Psychologist (b) English Psychologist (c) Russian Psychologist (d) German Psychologist (e) French Psychologist

449. At the age of 10, Jean Piget published his first article on a rare albino sparrow in a natural history journal in: (a) 1908 (b) 1907 (c) 1912 (d) 1916 (e) 1917

450. Jean Piaget used the term “Schemata” to refer to the cognitive structures underlying organized patterns of: (a) Concept (b) Behaviour (c) Experience (d) Temperament (e) None of the above

451. Piaget’s studies revealed that there is a gradual shift with age and experience from mental activities based on overt behaviour to symbolically represented “Schemata”. In older children, schemata are more inter­nalized and more mental. He called these mental equivalents of behavioural schemata as: (a) Organizations (b) Operations (c) Adaptations (d) Assimilations (e) Accommodations

452. In which developmental stage, according to Piaget, the child generally comes to see the relation between goals and the means to attain those goals? (a) Preoperational Period (b) Formal operation Period (c) Sensorimotor Period (d) Concrete Operation Period (e) None of the above

453. In which development stage, according to Piaget, “Object permanence” develops? (a) Concrete operation period (b) Sensorimotor Period (c) Preoperational Period (d) Formal operation period (e) None of the above

454. Piaget speaks of the “plane of action” in the sensorimotor phase preceding and being essential for the later development of the: (a) Concept formation (b) Plane of thought (c) Image (d) Personality (e) None of the above

455. In which substage of Sensorimotor Period, the infant repeats and modifies actions which initially may have occurred by chance and which the child finds to be satisfying or pleasurable? (a) Tertiary circular Reaction (b) Secondary circular Reaction (c) Primary circular Reaction (d) Coordination of secondary schemata (e) None of the above

456. Children actively use trial-and-error methods to learn more about the properties of objects in the developmental stage of: (a) Tertiary circular Reactions (b) Secondary circular Reactions (c) Primary circular Reactions (d) Coordination of secondary schemata (e) None of the above

457. The major characteristic of the preope­rational phase is the development of systems of representation, such as language, which Piaget calls the: (a) Communicative cues (b) Symbolic function (c) Implicit function (d) Explicit function (e) None of the above

458. A psychologist asked a four-year-old child- :

:”Do you have a brother?”

: “What’s his name?”: “Amit”.

: “Does Sunny have a brother?”

This is one of the illustrations of: (a) Conservation (b) Transformation (c) Irreversibility (d) Assimilation (e) Accommodation

459. The child’s habit of attending to one salient aspect of a problem neglecting other ones, thus distorting reasoning is known as: (a) Egocentrism (b) Transductive reasoning (c) Centration (d) Syncretism (e) None of the above

460. The child’s cognitive structure reaches maturity during: (a) Sensorimotor period (b) Preoperational period (c) The period of formal operations (d) Concrete operational period (e) None of the above

461. When we make use of many experiences and examples for arriving at a generalized prin­ciple or conclusion, it is known as: (a) Deductive Reasoning (b) Divergent Thinking (c) Convergent Thinking (d) Inductive Reasoning (e) None of the above

462. When we just start completely agreeing with some deduced results or principles and try to apply to particular cases, it is known as: (a) Deductive Reasoning (b) Inductive Reasoning (c) Divergent Thinking (d) Convergent Thinking (e) None of the above

463. Some people have almost photographic visual imagery. They only look at some­thing and recall what they have seen in detail. Such imagery is called: (a) Synesthesia (b) Memory Image (c) Eidetic Imagery (d) Verbal Imagination (e) None of the above

464. One school of psychology attempted to show that thinking without the sensory images is possible. What is the name of this school? (a) Behaviouristic school (b) Psychoanalysis (c) Woozberg school (d) Gestalt school (e) None of the above

465. The concept of an automobile is: (a) A conjuctive concept (b) A disjunctive concept (c) A haphazard concept (d) An image (e) None of the above

466. A disjunctive concept separates objects into a class by reason of their possession of: (a) Any two characteristics (b) Any one characteristic (c) Any three characteristics (d) Any four characteristics (e) Any five characteristics

467. The concepts which refer to relationship between two elements in a situation is known as: (a) Conjunctive Concepts (b) Disjunctive concepts (c) Relational Concepts (d) Simple concepts (e) None of the above

468. Many studies in thinking have been devoted to find out how we learn or form concepts. Such studies are popularly known as: (a) Study of symbols (b) Concept attainment studies (c) Study on Images (d) Language Development Studies (e) None of the above

469. In which strategy in concept learning, the “S” immediately jumps to the conclusion? (a) Wholist approach (b) Partist approach (c) Conservative appraoch (d) Gambler’s approach (e) None of the above

470. In “Conservative Approach”, in the stra­tegies in concept formation, the “S” (Sub­ject) proceeds very cautiously and syste­matically concentrating on: (a) One feature of the card at a time (b) Two features of the card at a time (c) Three features of the card at a time (d) Four features of the card at a time (e) None of the above

471. According to Heidbreder, the ‘number’ and ‘form’ concepts are more difficult to form that concept of: (a) Concrete objects (b) Words (c) Images (d) Syllables (e) None of the above

472. “Problem Solving” and “Creative Thinking” are two main forms of: (a) Autistic Thinking (b) Directed Thinking (c) Image (d) Realistic Thinking (e) None of the above

473. Psychologists believe that people have ways of thinking in their peculiar and more or less in a fixed way. They call these as: (a) Thinking sets (b) Concepts (c) Images (d) Fantasies (e) None of the above

474. A German Psychologist, Karl Duncker, first proposed the concept of: (a) Subvocal talking (b) Functional Fixity (c) Realistic Thinking (d) Implicit Speech (e) None of the above

475. We have a tendency to make normal use of certain household articles, but it is difficult for us to put them to some novel use. Psychologists have named this tendency as: (a) Concept formation (b) Abstraction (c) Functional fixedness (d) Generalisation (e) Differentiation

476. “Functional Fixedness” is an important factor in: (a) Thinking (b) Imagination (c) Problem Solving (d) Day Dreaming (e) None of the above

477. Ordinary people can distinguish between 8 (eight) vowel sounds and 12 to 15 conso­nantal sounds approximately. Such sounds are called: (a) Phonems (b) Morhpems (c) Concepts (d) Slurring (e) None of the above

478. English language makes use of: (a) 55 phonems approximately (b) 45 phonems approximately (c) 65 phonems approximately (d) 35 phonems approximately (e) 15 phonems approximately

479. Knowledge of ‘phonems’ is essential for comprehending a language, but the phonems themselves do not form a unit of perception of a language. The reason is that we never hear them one at a time. What we actually hear is two or three phonemes combined into a syllable called: (a) A concept (b) An image (c) A phonem (d) A morphem (e) None of the above

480. The “clause or phrase” is an unit of perception of: (a) Language (b) Thought (c) Concept (d) Image (e) None of the above

481. The range between the loudest and the weakest sounds that an individual can make is called: (a) Pitch range (b) Dynamic range (c) Auditory range (d) Sensory range (e) None of the above

482. According to the operant conditioning model, the most important aspect of language learning is the: (a) Reinforcement which the learner recei­ves from another person (b) Punishment given by the master learner (c) Reward received by the language teacher (d) Reward provided by the experimenter (e) None of the above

483. The “Information Processing Theory” ex­plains language learning by analogy with: (a) EEG model (b) Computer model (c) Animal model (d) Polygraph model (e) None of the above

484. The information processing theory empha­sises the contribution of the child rather than the role of reinforcement as emphasized by the: (a) Classical conditioning model (b) Operant model (c) Trial-and-Error model (d) Insightful learning model (e) None of the above

485. In 1860s, a French physician Paul Broca showed that a lower part of the frontal lobe, a short distance above and in the front of the left ear was mainly responsible for the: (a) Control of spoken language (b) Concept formation (c) Formation and development of images (d) Creativity (e) None of the above

486. The language region in the lower frontal lobe is known as: (a) Wernicke’s Area (b) Broca’s Area (c) Morgan’s Area (d) Sherrington’ Area (e) None of the above

487. The temporal-lobe language region is known as: (a) Wernicke’s Area (b) Broca’s Area (c) Morgan’s Area (d) Sherrington’ area (e) None of the above

488. The general term for speech disorder due to brain damage is known as: (a) Astasia-abasia (b) Aphasia (c) Aphonia (d) Paresthesia (e) Anesthesia

489. Wernicke’s area is connected to Broca’s area by a bundle of nerve fibres called the: (a) Rubrospinal Tract (b) Middle Temporal Gyrus (c) Arculate fasciulus (d) Lateral Sulcus (e) None of the above

490. Patients with damage to the angular gyrus may be able to communicate with and understand speech, but they cannot read. They have what is called: (a) Aphonia (b) Dyslexia (c) Aphasia (d) Paresthesia (e) None of the above

491. Decibel (dB) is the unit to measure the: (a) Light movement (b) Intelligence (c) Intensity of sound pressures (d) Sensation (e) Vision

492. Woodworth has called thinking as: (a) Mental Exploration (b) Problem solving behaviour (c) Covert manipulation (d) Subvocal Talking (e) None of the above

493. In reasoning, the association begins with a problem and end with a/an: (a) Problem (b) Solution (c) Image (d) Dream (e) None of the above

494. “Mental Trial and Error” is otherwise known as: (a) Perception (b) Learning (c) Thinking (d) Sensation (e) None of the above

495. The “Central Theory of Thinking” holds that we think only with the help of our: (a) Brain (b) Central Nervous system (c) Peripheral Nervous system (d) Spinal Cord (e) None of the above

496. The “Central theory of thinking,” which holds that we think with our brain only, was advanced by the: (a) Behaviourists (b) Structuralists (c) Functionalists (d) Gestalt Psychologists (e) None of the above

497. “Peripheral theory of thinking” is otherwise known as: (a) Affective approach of Thinking (b) Cognitive approach of Thinking (c) Motor Theory of Thinking (d) Stimulus Response Theory of Thinking (e) None of the above

498. J. B. Watson, the founding father of Be­haviourism, held that thinking is nothing but: (a) Subvocal talking (b) Silent talking (c) Meditation (d) Yoga (e) None of the above

499. Experimental Evidences indicate that thin­king is accompanied by minute muscular contractions occurring during thought are called: (a) Explicit speech (b) Spasm (c) Implicit speech (d) Muscle contractions (e) None of the above

500. Who viewed that thinking is the orga­nization and reorganization of current lear­ning in the present circumstances? (a) G. W. Allport (1924) (b) Vinacke (1968) (c) L. F. Shaffer (1936) (d) T.G.Andrews (1948) (e) Hanfmann and Kasanin (1937)

Answers 401. (a) 402. (a) 403. (b) 404. (a) 405. (d) 406. (a) 407. (a) 408. (b) 409. (d) 410. (b) 411. (a) 412. (a) 413. (a) 414. (d) 415. (b) 416. (c) 417. (b) 418. (d) 419. (c) 420. (a) 421. (a) 422. (a) 423. (b) 424. (d) 425. (a) 426. (a) 427. (d) 428. (a) 429. (a) 430. (c) 431. (a) 432. (a) 433. (c) 434. (a) 435. (a) 436. (b) 437. (a) 438. (a) 439. (c) 440. (b) 441. (b) 442. (a) 443. (c) 444. (d) 445. (a) 446. (c) 447. (c) 448. (a) 449. (b) 450. (b) 451. (b) 452. (c) 453. (b) 454. (b) 455. (c) 456. (a) 457. (b) 458. (c) 459. (c) 460. (c) 461. (d) 462. (a) 463. (c) 464. (c) 465. (a) 466. (b) 467. (c) 468. (b) 469. (d) 470. (a) 471. (a) 472. (d) 473. (a) 474. (b) 475. (c) 476. (e) 477. (a) 478. (b) 479. (d) 480. (a) 481. (b) 482. (a) 483. (b) 484. (b) 485. (a) 486. (b) 487. (a) 488. (b) 489. (c) 490. (b) 491. (c) 492. (a) 493. (b) 494. (c) 495. (a) 496. (d) 497. (c) 498. (a) 499. (c) 500. (b)

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Critical Thinking: Basic Questions & Answers

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Critical Thinking Test: Online Preparation & Free Practice Questions – 2023

Job Assessment

What Is Critical Thinking?

Critical thinking is a form of decision making and reasoning using data and observations. Someone who is a strong critical thinker can find quality solutions efficiently and can evaluate issues objectively.

What Is a Critical Thinking Test?

Critical thinking tests provide companies valuable insight into the leadership, reasoning, and overall capabilities of candidates. Because strong critical thinking skills are highly sought after, the critical thinking test can be applicable to any field and discipline across multiple levels of expertise from recent graduate to executive. However, it is commonly administered to those applying for criminal justice and business-related occupations.

Job seekers with upcoming critical thinking tests will be evaluated on more than their ability to rationalize, critical thinking tests also measure the following subsets:

The format of the critical thinking uses hypothetical scenarios to assess candidates. The scenarios are typically relevant to the field you are interested in to assess your knowledge of the role. There will also be general questions concerning more basic issues or problems that commonly occur in a workplace environment.

The critical thinking test is multiple-choice with thirty minutes to complete the assessment. Candidates will receive a notification stating whether or not they passed within a week of completion.

How Is the Critical Thinking Test Scored?

The critical reasoning test is scored based on your raw score and your percentile in comparison with your norm group. It’s important to note that these will not be the same number.

A norm group is a collection of scores from individuals in your field at your level of experience. The percentile score is used to alert employers if you exceed, meet or miss the benchmark for the average expectations of candidates. You will be rated on a scale of one to one hundred with fifty consisting of the mean and median scores.

A raw score is simply the number of correct answers. The critical thinking test comprises your raw score based on the performance in the following areas:

Employers will receive all of this information in a performance report construed by the assessment company. Employers will also be given insight into your overall potential, job knowledge, creativity and job performance per the report.

Where Will I Take a Critical Thinking Test?

Critical thinking tests are non-proctored online assessments that are typically sent via email after an initial screening. For some occupations, the company may ask that the candidate take the critical thinking test again on-site either before their final interview or during an assessment day. The most common test candidates are asked to take is the Watson Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal (WGCTA) created by the popular assessment company, Pearson . This assessment company is on their third edition with new scoring and subsets described above. The WGCTA gained popularity because of its ability to assess a candidate’s potential alongside their aptitude. Another established assessment is the SHL Critical Reasoning Battery that contains sixty questions with a thirty-minute time limit. Both of the aforementioned critical thinking tests are multiple choice.

How to Prepare for the Critical Thinking Test?

The critical thinking test is difficult to study for because the test is designed to assess your bare knowledge and raw skills. In order to prepare successfully, it is important to focus on the areas of the test that you can equip yourself for. One aspect of the test that demands preparation is the time limit. Many candidates’ scores are negatively impacted because they skip or guess too many of the questions in an attempt to beat the clock. If you want to optimize your chances of achieving a good score, use online practice tests to acquaint yourself with the time constraint and the general theme of the questions. By utilizing the online practice tests, you can find the pace that works best for you. Another helpful way to prepare is running through sample questions. This way, you can warm-up your brain and gain an understanding of the expectations that both the test and the company have of you.

Free Sample Questions to Practice

Aptitude Tests


Critical thinking and problem-solving, jump to: , what is critical thinking, characteristics of critical thinking, why teach critical thinking.

When examining the vast literature on critical thinking, various definitions of critical thinking emerge. Here are some samples:

Perhaps the simplest definition is offered by Beyer (1995) : "Critical thinking... means making reasoned judgments" (p. 8). Basically, Beyer sees critical thinking as using criteria to judge the quality of something, from cooking to a conclusion of a research paper. In essence, critical thinking is a disciplined manner of thought that a person uses to assess the validity of something (statements, news stories, arguments, research, etc.).


Wade (1995) identifies eight characteristics of critical thinking. Critical thinking involves asking questions, defining a problem, examining evidence, analyzing assumptions and biases, avoiding emotional reasoning, avoiding oversimplification, considering other interpretations, and tolerating ambiguity. Dealing with ambiguity is also seen by Strohm & Baukus (1995) as an essential part of critical thinking, "Ambiguity and doubt serve a critical-thinking function and are a necessary and even a productive part of the process" (p. 56).

Another characteristic of critical thinking identified by many sources is metacognition. Metacognition is thinking about one's own thinking. More specifically, "metacognition is being aware of one's thinking as one performs specific tasks and then using this awareness to control what one is doing" (Jones & Ratcliff, 1993, p. 10 ).

In the book, Critical Thinking, Beyer elaborately explains what he sees as essential aspects of critical thinking. These are:

Oliver & Utermohlen (1995) see students as too often being passive receptors of information. Through technology, the amount of information available today is massive. This information explosion is likely to continue in the future. Students need a guide to weed through the information and not just passively accept it. Students need to "develop and effectively apply critical thinking skills to their academic studies, to the complex problems that they will face, and to the critical choices they will be forced to make as a result of the information explosion and other rapid technological changes" (Oliver & Utermohlen, p. 1 ).

As mentioned in the section, Characteristics of Critical Thinking , critical thinking involves questioning. It is important to teach students how to ask good questions, to think critically, in order to continue the advancement of the very fields we are teaching. "Every field stays alive only to the extent that fresh questions are generated and taken seriously" (Center for Critical Thinking, 1996a ).

Beyer sees the teaching of critical thinking as important to the very state of our nation. He argues that to live successfully in a democracy, people must be able to think critically in order to make sound decisions about personal and civic affairs. If students learn to think critically, then they can use good thinking as the guide by which they live their lives.

Teaching Strategies to Help Promote Critical Thinking

The 1995, Volume 22, issue 1, of the journal, Teaching of Psychology , is devoted to the teaching critical thinking. Most of the strategies included in this section come from the various articles that compose this issue.

References and Resources

Other Reading

On the Internet

Walker Center for Teaching and Learning

Critical And Creative Thinking MCQ Quiz


Are you confident about your critical thinking skills? Let's your skills with this 'creative and critical thinking MCQ quiz. ' Are you interested in solving today's big problems? If so, you will need to develop an inquisitive mind and strong investigation skills. Are you able to ask powerful questions? Do you have the skills necessary to imagine new solutions and create action plans? Take this assessment and find out how strong creative and critical thinking abilities you have.

How much money can I make?

Who is responsible?

Can I accomplish this?

Analyzing problems and evaluating outcomes...discovering different perspectives and brainstorming ideas.

Finding objective answers...coming up with subjective answers.


Shallow thinking...deeper-level thinking.

What do I hear/see/smell?

Who is to blame?

What is my gut reaction?

Both a and c

Solve it as soon as possible.

Take time to observe the situation and discover the cause of the issue.

Walk away; it is most likely not your responsibility.

Ask your friends what they would do.

Silently observing the situation.

Writing up an action plan.

Taking a moment for silent contemplation.

Asking questions.

Narrows the scope of the conversation.

Is less reliable than a yes or no question.

Is open-ended and expands your thinking.

Calls for a one-word response.

A perspective you may have.

An idea you take for granted.

A piece of information you have researched.

The answer to a question.

Compare, contrast and connect.

Prioritize, pursue and persuade.

Question, quiz and quarrel.

Navigate, nurture and negotiate.

Very active; I am always daydreaming.

Somewhat active; I invent things in my head from time to time.

Not active at all; I'm too logical.

I'm actually not sure.

Laurel wants to know which books will give them answers.

Henry is curious about which rules can be broken.

Dolores is brainstorming a list of whom they can ask for help.

Stevie is ready to give up.

Sometimes, but not regularly.

Never; I just go with the flow.

All the time; I'm always aware of my achievements and where I need to improve.

What does that mean?

On stage, when you are in the school play.

On the football field, when you fumble the ball.

In the lunch room, when you are allowed to sit with the popular crowd.

On your report card through grades and comments.

Could often be prevented by planning ahead.

Don't serve a purpose.

Are never beneficial.

Usually can't be avoided.

Blame the others involved.

Don't think about it ever again.

Examine what you learned from it.

Lecture others about it.

Job skills: they are what will get you hired.

Both are equally important.

Thinking skills: you can use them to learn a variety of job skills when you are ready to enter the workforce.

Neither: it is more important to be a nice person.

Communication skills.

Managerial skills.

Interpersonal skills.

All are equally important.

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Home » Artificial Intelligence Objective Questions » 250+ TOP MCQs on Problem Solving and Answers

250+ TOP MCQs on Problem Solving and Answers

Artificial Intelligence Multiple Choice Questions on “Problem Solving”.

Answer: c Clarification: The problem-solving agents are one of the goal-based agents.

Answer: d Clarification: Because state space is mostly concerned with a problem, when you try to solve a problem, we have to design a mathematical structure to the problem, which can only be through variables and parameters. eg. You have given a 4-gallon jug and another 3-gallon jug. Neither has measuring marker on it. You have to fill the jugs with water. How can you get exactly 2 gallons of water in to 4 gallons. Here the state space can defined as set of ordered pairs integers(x,y), such that x=0,1,2,3 or 4 and y=0,1,2 or 3; X represents the number of gallons in 4 gallon jug and y represents the quantity of water in the 3-gallon jug.

Answer: a Clarification: Refer to the definition of problem-solving agent.

Answer: b Clarification: A search algorithm takes input as a problem and returns a solution to the problem as an output.

Answer: a Clarification: A problem has four components initial state, goal test, set of actions, path cost.

Answer: c Clarification: The most common formulation for actions uses a successor function. Given a particular state x, SUCCESSOR-FN(x) returns a set of (action, successor) ordered pairs, where each action is one of the legal actions in state x and each successor is a state that can be reached from x by applying the action.

Answer: a Clarification: A solution to a problem is a path from the initial state to a goal state. Solution quality is measured by the path cost function, and an optimal solution has the lowest path cost among all solutions.

Answer: b Clarification: The process of removing detail from a representation is called abstraction.

Answer: d Clarification: Problem-solving approach works well for toy problems and real-world problems.

Answer: b Clarification: Refer the TSP problem.

Answer: a Clarification: Web Crawling is type of search for a relevant document from given seed documents. Focused crawlers exists, helps to improvise the search efficiency.

Answer: d Clarification: For best performance consideration of all component is necessary.

Answer: c Clarification: When you are trying to solve a problem, you should design how to get a step-by-step solution with constraints condition to your problem, e.g Chess board problem.

Answer: a Clarification: Depth-First Search takes less memory since only the nodes on the current path are stored, but in Breadth First Search, all of the tree that has generated must be stored.

Answer: b Clarification: We use a Heuristic approach, as it will find out brute force computation, looking at hundreds of thousands of positions. e.g Chess competition between Human and AI based Computer.

Global Education & Learning Series – Artificial Intelligence.

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Categorized and correlated multiple-choice questions: a tool for assessing comprehensive physics knowledge of students.

critical thinking and problem solving mcq

1. Introduction

2. background.

3. Methodology

3.1. construction of categorized and correlated multiple choice questions, 3.2. administration of ccmcqs in three exams, 3.2.1. construction of ccmcqs for exam 1, 3.2.2. construction of ccmcqs for exam 2, 3.2.3. construction of ccmcqs for exam 3, 3.3. evaluation of ccmcqs for the exams, 4. results and discussions, data analysis, 5. conclusions, 6. limitations and future studies, institutional review board statement, informed consent statement, acknowledgments, conflicts of interest.

Share and Cite

Siddiqui, S. Categorized and Correlated Multiple-Choice Questions: A Tool for Assessing Comprehensive Physics Knowledge of Students. Educ. Sci. 2022 , 12 , 575. https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci12090575

Siddiqui S. Categorized and Correlated Multiple-Choice Questions: A Tool for Assessing Comprehensive Physics Knowledge of Students. Education Sciences . 2022; 12(9):575. https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci12090575

Siddiqui, Shabnam. 2022. "Categorized and Correlated Multiple-Choice Questions: A Tool for Assessing Comprehensive Physics Knowledge of Students" Education Sciences 12, no. 9: 575. https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci12090575

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CBSE Skill Education

Introduction to Problem Solving Class 11 MCQ

Teachers and Examiners ( CBSESkillEduction ) collaborated to create the Introduction to Problem Solving Class 11 MCQ . All the important Information are taken from the NCERT Textbook Computer Science (083) class 11 .

1. Computers cannot solve problems on their own. We must provide clear, step-by-step directions on how to solve the issue, this solving technique is known as ____________. a. Problem Solving  b. Problem Addressing c. Problem Analysis d. None of the above

2. ___________ is the process of identifying a problem, developing an algorithm for the identified problem and finally implementing the algorithm to develop a computer program. a. Problem Solving  b. Problem Addressing c. Problem Analysis d. None of the above

3. It is essential to device a solution before writing a program code for a given problem. The solution is represented in natural language and is called an ___________. a. Problem b. Algorithm  c. Problem Analysis d. None of the above

4. After finalizing the algorithm, we need to convert the algorithm into the_________. a. Format which can be understood by the computer b. High level programming language c. Both a) and b)  d. None of the above

5. What are the different type of testing. a. Component testing b. Integration testing c. System testing & Acceptance testing d. All of the above 

6. The developed programme needs to pass different parameter __________. The programme needs to fulfil the user’s requirements. It must respond in the anticipated amount of time. a. Method b. Testing  c. Error d. None of the above

7. To complete each activity in a computer, we follow a sequence of steps. This sequence of steps is known as ________. a. Problem b. Algorithm  c. Problem Analysis d. None of the above

8. ____________ is the act of locating and fixing problems in software code that could lead to unexpected behavior or crashes. These errors are sometimes referred to as “bugs.” a. Algorithm b. Problem Solving c. Debugging  d. All of the above

9. Why do we need an Algorithm? a. Accuracy b. Minimized mistakes c. Best possible solution d. All of the above 

10. Writing an algorithm is mostly considered as a ________. a. First step of programming  b. Second step of programming c. Third step of programming d. None of the above

11. Purpose of using algorithm? a. Increase the reliability b. Accuracy of the program c. Efficiency of obtaining solutions d. All of the above 

12. Characteristics of a good algorithm. a. Precision & Uniqueness b. Finiteness c. Input & Output d. All of the above 

13. Before implementing algorithm, the programmer should __________ first. a. Analyze the problem b. Identify the problem c. Both a) and b)  d. None of the above

14. A __________ is a visual representation of an algorithm. a. Flowchart  b. Pseudocode c. Algorithm d. None of the above

15. A flowchart is a diagram made up of __________. a. Boxes b. Diamonds c. Shapes d. All of the above 

16. Start/End also called _________ symbol, it indicates where the flow starts and ends. a. Terminator  b. Decision c. Input / Output d. Arrow

17. Process is also called ________, it represents a process, action, or a single step. a. Terminator b. Action Symbol  c. Decision d. Input/ Output

18. A __________ or branching point, usually a yes/no or true/ false question is asked, and based on the answer, the path gets split into two branches. a. Terminator b. Action Symbol c. Decision  d. Input/ Output

19. _________ is also called data symbol, this parallelogram shape is used to input or output data. a. Terminator b. Action Symbol c. Decision d. Input/ Output 

20. ___________ connector to show order of flow between shapes. a. Terminator b. Action Symbol c. Decision d. Arrow 

21. A ___________ is another way of representing an algorithm. It is considered as a non-formal language that helps programmers to write algorithm. a. Flowchart b. Pseudocode  c. Algorithm d. None of the above

22. The word “pseudocode” means ___________. a. Not real code  b. Real code c. Temporary code d. None of the above

23. It is necessary to run different input values through the algorithm’s phases in order to verify. This process of taking an input and running it through all of the algorithm’s steps is commonly referred to as a _______. a. Code b. Dry run  c. Method d. None of the above

24. Dry run will help us to __________. a. Identify any incorrect steps in the algorithm b. Figure out missing details or specifics in the algorithm c. Both a) and b)  d. None of the above

25. algorithms can be ___________ on the basis of the amount of processing time they need to run and the amount of memory that is needed to execute the algorithm. a. Compared b. Analyzed c. Both a) and b)  d. None of the above

26. ___________ is the set of rules or grammar that governs the formulation of the statements in the language, such as spellings, order of words, punctuation, etc. a. Analyzed b. Syntax  c. Code d. None of the above

27. Programs written using ________ are directly understood by the computer hardware, but they are difficult to deal with and comprehend by humans. a. High Level Language b. Binary Digit  c. 4GL Language d. None of the above

28. A program written in a high-level language is called ___________. a. Source code  b. Object c. Machine language d. None of the above

29. What type of problems are solved by computer. a. Easy problem b. Complex problem c. Both a) and b)  d. None of the above

30. The basic idea of solving a complex problem by decomposition is to __________. a. Decompose b. Break down c. Complex problem into smaller sub problems d. All of the above 

31. An algorithm is defined as a _________ procedure designed to perform an operation which will lead to the desired result, if followed correctly. a. Reverse procedure b. Step-by-step procedure  c. Random procedure d. None of the above

32. Algorithms have a definite ________ and a definite ________, and a finite number of steps. a. Middle & End b. Beginning & End  c. Beginning & Middle d. None of the above

33. A good algorithm, which is __________, receives input and produces an output. a. Precise b. Unique c. Finite d. All of the above 

34. In order to write effective algorithms we need to identify the__________ to be followed and the desired output. a. Input b. Process c. Both a) and b)  d. None of the above

35. A flowchart is a type of diagram that represents the algorithm graphically using boxes of various kinds, in an order connected by arrows. a. Flowchart  b. Algorithm c. Pseudocode d. None of the above

36. An _________ where all the steps are executed one after the other is said to execute in sequence. a. Flowchart b. Algorithm  c. Pseudocode d. None of the above

37. _________ making involves selection of one of the alternatives based on outcome of a condition. a. Terminator b. Action Symbol c. Decision  d. Arrow

38. An _________ may have a certain set of steps, which are repeating for a finite number of times, such an algorithm is said to be iterative. a. Flowchart b. Algorithm  c. Pseudocode d. None of the above

39. There can be __________ approach to solve a problem and hence we can have more than one algorithm for a particular problem. a. Only one b. More than one  c. No approach d. None of the above

40. The choice of __________ should be made on the basis of time and space complexity. a. Flowchart b. Algorithm  c. Pseudocode d. None of the above

Computer Science Class 11 Notes

Computer Science Class 11 MCQ

Computer science class 11 ncert solutions.

Problem Solving MCQ Quiz - 1

10 questions mcq test | problem solving mcq quiz - 1, jo's collection contains us, indian and british stamps. if the ratio of us to indian stamps is 5 to 2 and the ratio of indian to british stamps is 5 to 1, what is the ratio of us to british stamps.

5 : 1 

10 : 5 

15 : 2 

20 : 2 

Indian stamps are common to both ratios. Multiply both ratios by factors such that the Indian stamps are represented by the same number. US : Indian = 5 : 2, and Indian : British = 5 : 1. Multiply the first by 5, and the second by 2.  Now US : Indian = 25 : 10, and Indian : British = 10 : 2 Hence the two ratios can be combined and US : British = 25 : 2

A 3 by 4 rectangle is inscribed in circle. What is the circumference of the circle?





Draw the diagram. The diagonal of the rectangle is the diameter of the circle. The diagonal is the hypotenuse of a 3, 4, 5 triangle, and is therefore, 5. Circumference = π.diameter = 5π

Two sets of 4 consecutive positive integers have exactly one integer in common. The sum of the integers in the set with greater numbers is how much greater than the sum of the integers in the other set?

it cannot be determined from the information given.

If two sets of four consecutive integers have one integer in common, the total in the combined set is 7., and we can write the sets as n + (n + 1) + (n + 2) + (n + 3 ) and (n + 3) + (n + 4) + (n + 5) + (n + 6) Note that each term in the second set is 3 more than the equivalent term in the first set. Since there are four terms the total of the differences will be 4 x 3 = 12

critical thinking and problem solving mcq

ABCD is a square of side 3, and E and F are the mid points of sides AB and BC respectively. What is the area of the quadrilateral EBFD ?  

(Total area of square - sum of the areas of triangles ADE and DCF) will give the area of the quadrilateral 9 - (2 x ½ x 3 x 1.5) = 4.5

If n ≠ 0, which of the following must be greater than n?

I. 2n II. n 2 III. 2 - n

I only 

II only 

I and II only 

II and III only 

Remember that n could be positive negative or a fraction. Try out a few cases: In case I, if n is -1, then 2n is less than n. In case II, if n is a fraction such as ½ then n 2  will be less than n. In case III, if n is 2, then 2-n = 0, which is less than n. Therefore, none of the choices  must  be greater than n

n and p are integers greater than 5n is the square of a number 75np is the cube of a number.The smallest value for n + p is

The smallest value for n such that 5n is a square is 5. 75np can now be written as 75 x 5 x p. This gives prime factors.... 3 x 5 x 5 x 5 x p To make the expression a perfect cube, p will have to have factors 3 x 3 , and hence p =9 n + p = 5 + 9 = 14

The distance from town A to town B is five miles. C is six miles from B. Which of the following could be the distance from A to C? 

I. 11 II. 1 III. 7 

II only 

I and II only 

II and III only 

I, II, or III.

Do not assume that AB and C are on a straight line. Make a diagram with A and B marked 5 miles apart. Draw a circle centered on B, with radius 6. C could be anywhere on this circle. The minimum distance will be 1, and maximum 11, but anywhere in between is possible.

For how many integer values of n will the value of the expression 4n + 7 be an integer greater than 1 and less than 200?

1 < 4n + 7 < 200 n can be 0, or -1 n cannot be -2 or any other negative integer or the expression 4n + 7 will be less than1. The largest value for n will be an integer < (200 - 7) /4 193/4 = 48.25, hence 48 The number of integers between -1 and 48 inclusive is 50

12 litres of water are poured into an aquarium of dimensions 50cm length, 30cm breadth, and 40cm height. How high (in cm) will the water rise?(1 litre = 1000cm 3 )

Total volume of water = 12 liters = 12 x 1000 cm 3 The base of the aquarium is 50 x 30 = 1500cm 2 Base of tank x height of water = volume of water 1500 x height = 12000; height = 12000 / 1500 = 8

Six years ago Anita was P times as old as Ben was. If Anita is now 17 years old, how old is Ben now in terms of P ?

11/P + 6 

P/11 + 6 

17 - P/6 

Let Ben's age now be B Anita's age now is A. (A - 6) = P(B - 6) But A is 17 and therefore 11 = P(B - 6) 11/P = B-6 (11/P) + 6 = B

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