## Numbers Expressed in Numerals

there were 15 psychologists at the clinic

students were in the third, sixth, eighth, 10th, and 12th grades

This guidance has been expanded from the 6th edition.

## Related handout

## Cases in which to always use numerals for numbers

Always use numerals to express numbers in the following cases, even numbers zero through nine:

## Numbers in a series

Purdue Online Writing Lab College of Liberal Arts

## Numbers & Statistics

## Welcome to the Purdue OWL

## Numbers

- You should use Arabic numerals (1, 7) instead of Roman numerals (II, XI) unless the Roman numerals are part of established terminology in your field.
- In numbers greater than 1,000, use commas to separate groups of three digits except in page numbers, binary code, serial numbers, temperatures, acoustic frequencies, and degrees of freedom.
- Do not add apostrophes when writing a plural of a number (the 2000s, the 70s).

- a number 10 or higher anywhere in the paper
- a number right before a unit of measurement (3 m, 24 g)
- a number denoting: mathematical functions, fractions, decimals, percentages, ratios, percentiles (2:1 ratio, 5%)
- a number denoting: time, a date, an age, a point on a scale, an exact amount of money, or a numeral (the 3 key on your keyboard, 7 years old, a 5 on the test)
- a number indicating a place in a series or a part of a book/table, if the number is after a noun (i.e., Item 4, but words are used in cases like "the fourth item")

Spell the number out in words in these cases:

- a number from 0-9 anywhere in the paper, except the specific cases above
- a number that starts a sentence, heading, or title (though this should be avoided)
- a number that is a common fraction (one half, two thirds)
- a number that is part of a common phrase (Noble Eightfold Path)

## Ordinal Numbers

## Decimal Fractions

- If the statistic can be greater than 1, use a leading 0 (0.24 in)
- If the statistic cannot be greater than 1, do not use a leading 0 (p = .042)

Some more specific guidelines for particular values are listed below.

- correlations
- proportions
- inferential statistics
- exact p values (can be reported to two or three places; when p is less than .001, write p < .001)

## Statistical Copy

These rules cover presentation of data, not accuracy of data or the best way to conduct analysis.

You can represent data in the text, in a table, or in a figure. A rule of thumb is:

When discussing statistics in common use, you do not need to provide a reference or formula.

Some other statistical symbol guidelines include:

- use words rather than symbols in narrative text; when you report a stats term with other mathematical symbols like = or +, use the symbol
- population parameters use Greek letters while estimators use Latin letters in italics (usually)
- uppercase, italicized N indicates the total membership of a sample; lowercase, italicized n indicates the membership of a subgroup of a sample such as a treatment group or control group
- % and currency symbols like $ should only be used with numerals (15%, $25) or in table headings and figure labels to save space
- use standard type (no italics or bold) for Greek letters, subscript and superscript identifiers, and abbreviations that are not variables such as log
- use bold type for vector and matrix symbols
- use italics for all other statistical symbols

## Mathematical Copy

## Other APA Guidelines: Numbers

- Abbreviations
- Active and Passive Voice
- Anthropomorphism
- Capitalization
- Heading Levels
- Latin Abbreviations

## Basics of Numbers

Take the APA Style Diagnostic Quiz to test your knowledge.

Use words to express numbers in these situations:

Seventeen computer programmers went out to dinner last night

The principal presented awards to three fourths of the student body.

(This is a new rule in APA 7. APA 6 recommended using numerals in the abstract.)

Use numerals to express numbers in these situations:

She had been a nurse for 3 years.

Chapter 4 was considered required reading.

The student scored a perfect 7.

Each post was roughly 2.45 ft apart.

Teachers gave students ice cream if they scored in the top 5%.

You owe me $5.

Didn't find what you need? Search our website or email us .

Read our website accessibility and accommodation statement .

## Walden Resources

- Academic Residencies
- Academic Skills
- Career Planning and Development
- Customer Care Team
- Field Experience
- Military Services
- Student Success Advising
- Writing Skills

## Centers and Offices

- Center for Social Change
- Office of Degree Acceleration
- Office of Student Affairs
- Office of Research and Doctoral Services

## Student Resources

- CAEX Courses and Workshops
- Doctoral Writing Assessment
- Form & Style Review
- Quick Answers
- ScholarWorks
- Walden Bookstore
- Walden Catalog & Student Handbook
- Student Safety/Title IX
- Legal & Consumer Information
- Website Terms and Conditions
- Cookie Policy
- Accessibility
- Accreditation
- State Authorization
- Net Price Calculator
- Contact Walden

## APA Writing Style

Introduction to apa writing, sample student paper.

- Annotated student sample paper (PDF, 2MB)
- Student sample paper (DOCX, 36KB)
- APA Stylistics: Basics This source discusses ways of incorporating APA style into your writing. The content in this source was created by the Owl at Purdue University.
- APA Style Tutorials and Webinars A tutorial created by American Psychological Association to help familiarize students and researches with the basics of APA style.
- APA Style Blog Provides news, and helpful tips from APA style experts.
- APA Style This is the official website for the APA Style manual. It provides information on different topics dealing with writing.
- Next: Voice and Tense >>
- Last Updated: Jan 30, 2023 4:09 PM
- URL: https://libguides.gvltec.edu/apawriting

## Have a language expert improve your writing

Run a free plagiarism check in 10 minutes, generate accurate citations for free.

## APA Style Guidelines for Numbers | Words or Numerals?

Published on August 7, 2015 by Sarah Vinz . Revised on September 28, 2021.

## Table of contents

Use numerals for numbers from zero to nine that are followed by a precise unit of measurement.

The samples measured 7 cm in diameter. (“cm” is a unit of measurement)

But: These three samples were subjected to further testing.

Use words for any number that is used to start a sentence, with the exception of years.

Seventy-two thousand ink cartridges are sold every day.

Nineteenth-century novels often feature complicated plot lines.

But: 2008 saw record olive crops throughout the Mediterranean.

Use words for common fractions and set expressions.

According to the survey, two thirds of the employees are dissatisfied.

Understanding the Five Pillars of Islam is a critical first step.

The Fourth of July is traditionally marked by a firework display.

With percentages, the standard is to use numerals and “%” (not “percent”).

## Receive feedback on language, structure, and formatting

Professional editors proofread and edit your paper by focusing on:

- Report most statistics to two decimal places (such as M = 5.44).
- Report statistics that could never exceed 1.0 to three decimal places (such as p < .001).
- If a value has the potential to exceed 1.0, use the leading zero. If a value can never exceed 1.0, do not use the leading zero.
- Italicize values that are not Greek letters (such as M , SD , p , and F ).
- Include spaces before and after =, >, and <.

The average IQ of the participants was relatively high ( M = 137.33, SD = 4.54).

The results of the second test were statistically significant, t (12) = 4.11, p < .05.

There are further detailed guidelines about reporting statistics in APA .

If a number comes immediately before a unit of measurement, use numerals.

Each patient received 5 mg of the experimental drug.

The tallest participant was 2.03 m .

Also use numerals for precise ages, times, dates, scores, points on a scale, and amounts of money.

The final score of Ghana 2, Brazil 1 did not represent a decisive victory.

Children under 8 years receive a $50 discount.

Longer numbers follow specific rules:

- Use a period to indicate a decimal point.
- Starting with 1,000, use commas to separate every three digits.

The region has an average of 43.75 doctors for every 10,000 people.

Some predict that the number of users will reach 2 billion by 2020.

## Cite this Scribbr article

Vinz, S. (2021, September 28). APA Style Guidelines for Numbers | Words or Numerals?. Scribbr. Retrieved March 17, 2023, from https://www.scribbr.com/academic-writing/numbers/

## Is this article helpful?

## Other students also liked

## APA (6/e) Style Guide

- Quotes & Paraphrasing
- Brackets vs. Parentheses
- In-Text Citations
- Books & Journals
- Citing a Lecture
- Citing Tables
- Citing Figures
- Citing Visuals
- More examples
- Avoiding Plagiarism
- APA Highlights

Welcome to the NYMC APA Style LibGuide .

Keep in mind that APA Style refers to:

- the format & structure of your paper.
- how you cite other authors within the body of your paper.
- how you compile a references page at the end of your paper.

The purpose of documentation is to:

- Identify ( cite ) other people’s ideas and information used within your essay or term paper.
- Indicate the authors or sources of these in a References list at the end of your paper.

Additional resources to use for citing with APA:

- Purdue Owl for APA Style hese OWL resources will help you learn how to use the American Psychological Association (APA) citation and format style. This section contains resources on in-text citation and the References page, as well as APA sample papers, slide presentations, and the APA classroom poster.
- SUNY Fox (University of Albany) CitationFox-APA is intended to help with the construction of citations in APA style. It is based on the 6th edition of the Publication manual of the American Psychological Association. This style is used primarily by those in the social science and education disciplines. CitationFox-APA contains templates and examples for over 500 different resource types.
- FREE! APA online tutorial
- APA sample paper from APA website
- Next: Formatting >>
- Last Updated: Sep 9, 2020 4:17 PM
- URL: https://guides.library.nymc.edu/APA6

## January 13, 2011

- The fifth edition specified that numerals should be used when discussing numbers of subjects or participants in an experiment. The sixth edition does not contain that rule, so the general rule about expressing numbers 10 and above with numerals and below 10 with words holds. Correct usage per the sixth edition would be, “The control group contained 17 participants, nine of whom were female and eight of whom were male” (see related blog posts ).
- There is also a new exception in the sixth edition—that words should be used to express units of time when those units are approximate: “It took the rats about three seconds to discover the new food source.”

## Search the APA Style Blog

- Abbreviations
- Advance online publication
- Announcements
- Author names
- Best of Blog
- Bias-free language
- Capitalization
- Common references
- Computer tips
- Digital Object Identifier (DOI)
- Direct quotations
- ebooks/Kindle
- Electronic references
- Grammar and usage
- Hyphenation
- In-text citations
- Journal Article Reporting Standards (JARS)
- Journal articles
- Movies and TV
- Numbers and metrication
- Paraphrasing
- Personal communications
- Principles of good writing
- Publication Manual help
- Publication process
- Punctuation
- Punctuation Junction
- Reference list
- Research participants
- Running heads
- Social media
- Tables and figures
- Tests and measures
- Translations

## Recent Posts

Archiving the Sixth Edition APA Style Blog

Introducing the 7th Edition of the Publication Manual

The Seventh Edition of the Publication Manual Is Available for Preorder!

When to Include Page Numbers in a Reference List Entry

The Relation of Tables and Figures With Text

What Qualifies as a Table or a Figure in APA Style?

How to Cite Instagram in APA Style

How to Cite a Government Report in APA Style

How to Cite Edition, Volume, and Page Numbers for Books

## Recent Comments

- D on Numbers Anyone?
- Rose on Numbers Anyone?
- Charlotte Cottier on Numbers Anyone?
- Carola on Numbers Anyone?
- Paige Jackson on Numbers Anyone?
- rosiebc on Numbers Anyone?
- Fyrefly68 on Numbers Anyone?

## IMAGES

## VIDEO

## COMMENTS

In general, use numerals to express numbers 10 and above, and use words to express numbers zero through nine. · there were 15 psychologists at the clinic. the

In general, APA style recommends using words to express numbers below 10, and using numerals when expressing numbers 10 and above.

Generally, you can spell out numbers below 10 in words (seven, three), and use numerals for anything 10 and higher (10, 42). Cite your source automatically in

Per APA 7, Section 6.32, use numerals to express numbers 10 or above (e.g., 11, 23, 256). Per Section 6.33, write out numbers as words to express numbers up

The general rule governing APA style on the use of numbers is to use figures to express numbers 10 and above and words to express numbers below 10" (APA

Basic Number Rule · APA style has special rules for expressing numbers within a research papers. For more detailed information on numbers, please

In general, words should be used for numbers from zero through nine, and numerals should be used from 10 onwards. This is true for both cardinal

A. General rule: “Use numerals to express numbers 10 and above and words to express numbers below 10” (American Psychological Association (APA), 2010, p.

What are some key changes in the APA Publication Manual from 6th to 7th edition regarding numbers and results in text?

1. Use numerals to express numbers 10 and above, and use words to express numbers below 10 (see sections 4.31–4.32, pp. 111–112)